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小德兰爱心书屋最新公告 有一天,我做了一个奇怪的梦,至今让我难忘。梦中,我看到一本打开的用石头做的书,我用舌头去舔它,觉得有一种甜味,我就更用力去舔,最后从这本书里流出活水来了。从那以后,一种想要了解、学习的迫切渴求在我心里扩展开来,我燃起的强烈的愿望要在真道上长进。   我爱上了灵修书籍,我感觉好像是主亲自为我挑选那些有益精神修养的读物,主不喜悦我看那些世面流行的书籍,因为只要我一看到那些他不喜欢我看的书,我就有一种厌恶的感觉。主保守我,那样细心地防护着我,从那以后我从未读过一本不良的书籍。   善良的书使人向善,这些圣人的作品,渐渐地印在了我的脑子里。读这些圣书时,我思潮汹涌起伏,欣喜不能自已。书中谈到这些圣人们如何在与主的交往中得到灵命的更新,德行的馨香如何上达天庭。啊,在这世上曾住过那么多热心的圣人,为了传播福音,他们告别亲人,舍下了他们手中的一切,轻快地踏上了异国他乡,到没有人知道真神的世界里去。啊,若不是主的引领,我可能到死还不认识他们呢!   我的心灵从主给我的这些圣人的言行中选取了最美的色彩;当他们的一生在我面前展开时,我是多么的惊奇、兴奋啊!当我读到他们为主而受人逼迫、凌辱,为将福音广传而被人追杀时,我为他们的在天之灵祈祷,我哭着,为自已的同胞带给他们的苦难而哀号。我一遍遍地重读那一行行被我的斑斑泪痕弄得模糊不清的字句,那些被主的爱火所燃烧而离开家乡来到中国的传教士,我多么爱你们啊!我心中流淌着多少感激的泪水。   他们受苦却觉得喜乐,因为他们爱主,他们感到能为主受一点苦是多么喜乐的事。他们受苦时仍在唱着感谢的歌,因他们无法不称颂主,因主使他们的心灵洋溢了快乐;他们激发了我内心神圣的热情,在我的心灵深处燃烧起一股无法扑灭的火焰,他们那强有力的言行激励我向前。   我一面读,一面想过着他们这样圣善的生活,也立志不在这虚幻的尘世中寻求安慰。我一读就是几个钟头,累了就望着书上的圣像沉思默想。啊,当我想到我有一天还要见到他们,亲耳聆听他们的教诲,伴随在他们的身边,和他们一起赞颂吾主,想到那使我欣喜欢乐的甜蜜的相会,这世界对于我一点吸引力都没有了。   从这些书籍里,我认识了许多爱主的人,他们使我更亲近主,帮助我更深的认识主,爱主。这些曾经生活在人间的圣人圣女,内心隐藏着来自天上光照的各种宝藏,听他们对悦主的甜蜜喁语,我也陶醉了。主藉着这些书籍慢慢地培养我的心灵,当我看到这些圣德芬芳的圣人再看看满身污秽的我,我失望过,沮丧过,哭泣过,和主呕气过,甚至埋怨天主不用祂的全能让我立刻成圣。但是主让我明白,灵命的成长需要时间,成长是渐进的,农民等待稻谷的长成需要整个季节,才能品尝丰收的喜悦,我也要有谦卑受教的态度才能接受主的话语,要让这些圣言成为血肉(果实),是需要时间的。   从网上我读到许多有益心灵的书。当我首次读到盖恩夫人的传记时,清泪沾腮,她的经历强烈地震撼着我的心,我接受到了一个很大的恩宠,使我认识了十字架是生命的真正之路。读圣女小德兰的传记时,我又有别一种感受,我看到了一个与我眼所见的完全不同的世界,那里没有争吵,没有仇恨,没有岐视,那是主自己在人的心里建造的爱的天堂。还有圣女大德兰的自传,在这位圣女的感召下,我初领了圣体,从圣体中获得无量恩宠。这些书引我向往那超性的境界,向往那浑然忘我的境界,从此无益的书一概不看了。我一遍遍地重温这些我喜欢的书籍,一遍又一遍地回味书中那些难忘的情景,我和他们谈心,告诉他们我愿意效法他们,心里多么渴望能像他们那样爱主。   我因此而认识了许许多多圣人,这些圣人中有许多也曾是罪人,使我也能向他们敞开心门。我一会儿求这个圣人为我转祷,一会儿求那个圣人为我祈求圣宠,这些圣人使我的生活变得丰富多彩。我想,既然他们真心爱天主,那么他们也会真心爱我。现在他们和天主如此接近,当世人向他们祈求时,他们也会想方设法将我的祈祷告诉天主的。就这样,他们和我共享生活的体验,不断地把上天仁爱的芬芳散播给我,他们的友谊使我的欢乐加倍,痛苦减半;他们已走过死阴的幽谷,从他们身上我学习到了明辨、通达、智慧、勇敢、诚实、快乐、圣洁等等美德。他们的言行是滋润我心田的美酒。   这些书使我专注于天上的事理,我的很多不良嗜好因此不知不觉地放弃了。我的信德一天一天长大,我知道我的一言一行都有天使记录;我也深信人有灵魂,信主的人有一个美好的家;也相信圣人们都在天上为我祈祷,我并不是孤军奋战;我是生活在一个由天上地下千千万万奉耶稣的名而组成的家庭里,我庆幸自己因了主的恩宠能生活在这个大家庭慈爱的怀抱里;我也渴望所有的人都能进入光明天家,和圣人们一起赞美天主于无穷世!   小德兰爱心书屋启源于一个美好的梦。小德兰希望所有圣书的作者和译者都能向主敞开心门,为圣书广传而不记个人的私利;愿天主赐福小德兰;赐福所有传扬主名的网站;赐福所有来看圣书的人;也求主扩张人的心界,使小德兰能将更多更好的书藉,献给喜欢读圣书的人!从2014年12月18日开始我们使用新域名(xiaodelan.love),原域名被他人办理开通,请您更改您网站或博客上的链接,谢谢。 【请关注微信公众号:小德兰书屋】   
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「我的民因无知识而灭亡。你弃掉知识,我也必弃掉你,使你不再给我作祭司。」
美国宪证不适合不敬畏天主违背十诫的人群!
美国宪证不适合不敬畏天主违背十诫的人群!
来源:小德兰爱心书屋 浏览次数:56 更新时间:2020-11-14 1:52:06
 
 

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美国选出来谁当总统与我们干系都不大。但是,不能用欺骗的手段,与其说支持哪一位,不如说谁站在真理的那一边谁就是赢家,天主的属性里面没有谎言,祂非常的圣洁,祂是真理,绝不会说谎,所以他的儿女也不能说谎,若是我们说谎就落入撒殚的伎俩中,也许很多人有自己的观点,但不代表你的观点符合圣经的价值观!


[圣咏集] 5:7 说不实的人,你全予以消除;奸诈好杀的人,上主一律厌恶。

[圣咏集] 101:7 诡诈欺骗的人,不得住在我的宫内,说不实的人,不得在我眼前存在。


很多人都信奉基督教,却是假信徒,那么多假信徒不仅不阻止这个骗子,还成为其帮凶。


天主教特伦多教理第八诫:禁止我们用假见证伤害我们的近人,决不允许借助谎言和欺骗,更不能做伪证。圣奥斯定在他的书《论谎言》教导:宗徒说过,一个谎言,哪怕是对他人虚假的赞扬,也属于假见证。

今天回过头来看,许多的历史事实证明,当一个民族的多数人都卷入一场犯罪时,在一场民族性的黑暗面前,光审判几个拜登是不够的,只有每个人都完成一次内心的审判之后,民族精神的救治才可能有效,因为在这场劫难里,许多人都用赞成或沉默投了拜登一票。



圣经分享:

训道篇 1:9  往昔所有,将会再有;昔日所行,将会再行;太阳之下决无新事。

附:特伦多教理第八诫命:不可作假见证,害你的近人(张保禄译)

08第八诫命:不可作假见证,害你的近人.mp3来自小德兰28:45


THE EIGHTH COMMANDMENT : "Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour"

第八诫命:不可作假见证,害你的近人。

 

Importance Of Instruction On This Commandment

本诫命的重要性

 

The great utility, nay the necessity, of carefully explaining this Commandment, and of emphasising itsobligation, we learn from these words of St. James: If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man;and again, The tongue is indeed a little member, and boasteth great things. Behold how small a fire, what a greatwood it kindleth; and so on, to the same effect.

仔细解释和强调本诫命的功用性,而非必要性,我们可以从圣雅各伯的话中得出:谁若在言语上不犯过失,他便是个完人(雅各伯3:2)。舌头虽然是一个小小的肢体,却能夸大。看,小小的火,能燃著广大的树林,舌头也像是火(雅各伯3:5)!

 

From these words we learn two truths. The first is that sins of the tongue are very prevalent, which is confirmedby these words of the Prophet: Every man is a liar, so that it would almost seem as if this were the only sinwhich extends to all mankind. The other truth is that the tongue is the source of innumerable evils. Through thefault of the evil-speaker are often lost the property, the reputation, the life, and the salvation of the Injuredperson, or of him who inflicts the injury. The injured person, unable to bear patiently the contumely, avenges itwithout restraint. The offender, on the other hand, deterred by a perverse shame and a false idea of what iscalled honour, cannot be induced to make reparation to him whom he has offended.

从以上这段话,我们学到两个真理。第一个,是舌头造成的罪非常的普遍,这一点先知也确认,说:众人都虚诈不诚(圣咏116:11)。因此,这个罪看起来是全人类唯一人人都犯的罪。第二个真理是,舌头是无数邪恶的源头。邪恶的说客能使得受害者与侵害者双方的财产、名誉、生命甚至是救恩都丧失掉。受害方很难平静的忍受傲慢,会毫无节制的复仇。另一方面,侵害方被刚愎和错误的荣誉所阻止,也不听劝导对受害方进行赔偿。

 

This Commandment Should Call Forth Our Gratitude

本诫命应唤起我们的感激之情

 

Hence the faithful are to be exhorted to thank God as much as they can for having given this salutaryCommandment, not to bear false witness, which not only forbids us to injure others, but which also, if dulyobserved, prevents others from injuring us.

信友们应该被教导,因为有本诫命,所以要尽可能的感谢天主,不能做假见证,不仅禁止我们伤害他人,同时也阻止他人伤害我们。

 

Two Parts Of This Commandment

本诫命的两个部分

 

In its explanation we shall proceed as we have done with regard to the others, pointing out that in it arecontained two laws. The first forbids us to bear false witness. The other commands us to lay aside alldissimulation and deceit, and to measure our words and actions by the standard of truth, a duty of which theApostle admonishes the Ephesians in these words: Doing the truth in charity, let us grow up in all things in him.

与其他的诫命相同,首先要指出本诫命包含两条法律。第一条禁止我们做假见证。第二条要求我们抛开所有的欺诈和伪装,用真理衡量我们的言行,这是宗徒给厄弗所教会的信中要求的:在爱德中持守真理,在各方面长进,而归于那为元首的基督(4:15)。

 

Negative Part Of This Commandment

本诫命的禁止部分

 

With regard to the prohibitory part of this Commandment, although by false testimony is understood whateveris positively but falsely affirmed of anyone, be it for or against him, be it in a public court or elsewhere; yet theCommandment specially prohibits that species of false testimony which is given on oath in a court of justice.

关于本诫命的禁止部分,尽管假见证被普遍的理解为,对某人肯定的确认,尽管这确认是错误的,这确认是在公共法庭或其他地方,为了支持某人或反对某人而做出的。但是本诫命特别禁止在法庭上发假誓这一类的假见证。

 

For a witness swears by the Deity, because the words of a man thus giving evidence and using the divine name,have very great weight and possess the strongest claim to credit. Such testimony, therefore, because it isdangerous, is specially prohibited; for even the judge himself cannot reject the testimony of sworn witnesses,unless they be excluded by exceptions made in the law, or unless their dishonesty and malice are notorious. Thisis especially true since it is commanded by divine authority that in the mouth of two or three every word shallstand.

因为,证人以天主的名义发誓,使用了神圣的名义,证言就有极大的分量和可信度。因此这种假誓非常危险,必须特别的加以禁止。因为就算是法官也不能拒绝发了誓的证词,除非法律规定的例外,又或者证人是臭名昭著的不诚实和预谋。这一点特别的真实,所以神圣的权威特别命令无论什么事,凭两个或三个见证的口供,才得成立(格后13:1)。

 

"Against Thy Neighbour"

害你的近人

 

In order that the faithful may have a clear comprehension of this Commandment it should be explained who isour neighbour, against whom it is unlawful to bear false witness. According to the interpretation of Christ theLord, our neighbour is he who needs our assistance, whether bound to us by ties of kindred or not, whether afellow-citizen or a stranger, a friend or an enemy.' It is wrong to think that one may give false evidence againstan enemy, since by the command of God and of our Lord we are bound to love him.

为了给信友对本诫命清晰的理解,就要解释本诫命中的近人,是指的谁。根据基督上主的解释,我们的近人就是需要我们帮助的人,无论是我们的亲戚还是公民或陌生人,朋友或者敌人。认为可以对敌人做假见证的想法是错误的,因为根据天主和我主的命令,我们应当爱他们。

 

Moreover, as every man is bound to love himself, and is thus, in some sense, his own neighbour, it is unlawfulfor anyone to bear false witness against himself. He who does so brands himself with infamy and disgrace, andinjures both himself and the Church of which he is a member, much as the suicide, by his act, does a wrong tothe state. This is the doctrine of St. Augustine, who says: To those who do not understand (the precept)properly, it might seem lawful to give false testimony against one's self, because the words "against thyneighbour" are subjoined in the Commandment. But let no one who bears false testimony against himself thinkthat he has not violated this Commandment, for the standard of loving our neighbour is the love which wecherish towards ourselves.

进一步的,每个人都有义务爱自己,因此在某种意义上,自己也是自己的近人,也不允许对自己做假见证。凡是这样做的人标榜了自己的臭名和耻辱,伤害了自己和教会,就如同一个自杀者对祖国的伤害一样。这是由圣奥斯定而来的信理,他说:对那些不恰当的理解本诫命的人来说,对自己的假见证似乎是合法的,因为,本诫命末尾添加了不可害你的近人的条件。但是对自己做假见证的人而言,不能认为没有违反本诫命,因为,对我们的近人爱的程度标准就是我们自己爱自己的标准。

 

False Testimony In Favour Of A Neighbour Is Also Forbidden

有利于近人的假见证也是禁止的

 

But if we are forbidden to injure our neighbour by false testimony, let it not be inferred that the contrary islawful, and that we may help by perjury those who are bound to us by ties of kinship or religion. It is neverallowed to have recourse to lies or deception, much less to perjury. Hence St. Augustine in his book toCrescentius On Lying teaches from the words of the Apostle that a lie, although uttered in false praise ofanyone, is to be numbered among false testimonies. Treating of that passage, Yea, and we are found falsewitnesses of God, because we have given testimony against God, that he hath raised up Christ whom he hathnot raised, if the dead rise not again, he says: The Apostle calls it false testimony to utter a lie with regard toChrist, even though it should seem to redound to His praise.

如果禁止我们用假见证伤害我们的近人,那么也不能得出相反的结论,就是我们用伪证来帮助亲戚和教友。决不允许借助谎言和欺骗,更不能做伪证。因为圣奥斯定在他的书《论谎言》教导:宗徒说过,一个谎言,哪怕是对他人虚假的赞扬,也属于假见证。在解释这段经文“如果死人真不复活,我们还被视为天主的假证人,因为我们相反天主作证,说天主使基督复活了,其实并没有使他复活(格前5:15)”时,圣奥斯定说:宗徒把有关基督的谎言称为假见证,甚至在看起来损害了对祂的赞扬事上。

 

It also not infrequently happens, that by favouring one party we injure the other. False testimony is certainly theoccasion of misleading the judge, who, yielding to such evidence, is sometimes obliged to decide againstjustice, to the injury of the innocent.

还有许多经常发生的,即我们为了偏向某一方而伤害了另一方。假见证就是误导法官,使得法官在这种证据下,做出了违背正义,伤害无辜的判决。

 

Sometimes, too, it happens that the successful party, who by means of perjured witnesses, has gained his caseand escaped with impunity, exulting in his iniquitous victory, soon becomes accustomed to the work ofcorrupting and suborning false witnesses, by whose aid he hopes to obtain whatever he wishes.To the witness himself it must be most grievous that his falsehood and perjury are known to him whom he hasaided and abetted by his perjury; whilst encouraged by the success that follows his crime, he becomes every daymore accustomed to wickedness and audacity.

有时,靠着伪证赢得诉讼逃脱惩罚的一方,得意洋洋于不公正的胜利,很快就习惯于腐败和教唆假见证的事情,妄想通过假见证获得他想要的。对于假证人而言,最可悲的是他的谎言和伪证被他人所知晓。受到他的罪行成功的鼓励,他就每天变得越习惯于邪恶和放肆。

 

"Thou Shalt Not Bear False Witness"

你不应做假见证

 

All Falsehoods In Lawsuits Are Forbidden

在诉讼中,所有的谎言都是禁止的

 

This precept then prohibits deceit, lying and perjury on the part of witnesses. The same prohibition extends alsoto plaintiffs, defendants, promoters, representatives, procurators and advocates; in a word, to all who take anypart in lawsuits.

本诫命禁止证人的撒谎、欺骗和伪证。同样的禁令也延伸到起诉人,辩护人,促进人,代理人和调节人,一句话,在诉讼中的所有人都不可撒谎。

 

False Testimony Out Of Court Is Forbidden

法庭之外的假见证也不允许

 

Finally, God prohibits all testimony which may inflict injury or injustice, whether it be a matter of legalevidence or not. In the passage of Leviticus where the Commandments are repeated, we read: Thou shalt notsteal; thou shalt not lie; neither shall any man deceive his neighbour.' To none, therefore can it be a matter ofdoubt, that this Commandment condemns lies of every sort, as these words of David explicitly declare: Thouwilt destroy all that speak a lie.

最后,天主禁止所有能造成伤害和不公的假见证,无论是不是一个合法的证据。在肋未纪中,诫命被重申,说:你们不要偷窃,不要欺诈,不要彼此哄骗(19:11);因此,任何人不应有一丝怀疑,本诫命禁止一切谎言,就像达味明确宣布的:说谎不实的人,你全予以消除(圣咏5:7)。

 

 

This Commandment Forbids Detraction

本诫命禁止诽谤

 

This Commandment forbids not only false testimony, but also the detestable vice and practice of detraction, -- apestilence, which is the source of innumerable and calamitous evils. This vicious habit of secretly reviling andcalumniating character is frequently reprobated in the Sacred Scriptures. With him, says David, I would not eat;and St. James: Detract not one another, my brethren.

本诫命不仅禁止假见证,而且禁止恶意诽谤,这是一种瘟疫,是数不清的灾难性的邪恶之源。这种可恶的私下谩骂和诽谤的特点经常在圣经中看到被驳斥。达味说:我不跟这种人一起吃饭。圣雅各伯说:弟兄们,你们不要彼此诋毁(雅各伯4:11)。

 

Holy Writ abounds not only with precepts on the subject, but also with examples which reveal the enormity ofthe crime. Aman, by a crime of his own invention, had so incensed Assuerus against the Jews that he orderedthe destruction of the entire race. Sacred history contains many other examples of the same kind, which priestsshould recall in order to deter the people from such iniquity.

天主上智对本主题的诫命非常丰富,而且还有许多例子揭露这个罪行的穷凶恶极。哈曼通过捏造的罪行,煽起了薛西斯王对犹太人的仇恨,以至于下令摧毁整个民族(艾斯德尔传3)。史书还包含有许多其他同样类型的例子,祭司们应用这些例子阻止人们犯这样的罪。

 

Various Kinds Of Detraction

诽谤的不同种类

 

But, to understand well the nature of this sin of detraction, we must know that reputation is injured not only bycalumniating the character, but also by exaggerating the faults of others. He who gives publicity to the secret sinof any man, in an unnecessary place or time, or before persons who have no right to know, is also rightlyregarded as a detractor and evil-speaker, if his revelation seriously injures the other's reputation.

但是为了更好的理解诽谤罪的本质,我们需知诽谤人格可以伤害名誉,夸大别人的错误也可以。在非必要的时间地点,对无权知晓的人群公开某人私密的罪,可以被认定为诽谤者和邪恶说客,如果他披露的严重的伤害了他人的声誉。

 

But of all sorts of calumnies the worst is that which is directed against Catholic doctrine and its teachers.

但是所有的诽谤中最坏的,是直接反对天主教信理和教会老师的。

 

Persons who extol the propagators of error and of unsound doctrine are guilty of a like crime.

那些赞扬鼓吹错误和不可靠信理的人也犯同样的罪。

 

Nor are those to be dissociated from the ranks of evil-speakers, or from their guilt, who, instead of reproving,lend a willing ear and a cheerful assent to the calumniator and reviler. As we read in St. Jerome and St. Bernard,it is not so easy to decide which is more guilty, the detractor, or the listener; for if there were no listeners, therewould be no detractors.

不仅要远离那些邪恶说客的罪行,还要远离另一些愿意支起耳朵听,还表示认同这诽谤和谩骂的人。如同我们在圣热罗尼莫和圣伯尔纳铎著作中读到的,很难决定谁更有罪,是诽谤者还是聆听者,因为如果没有聆听者,就没有诽谤者。

 

To the same category belong those who cunningly foment divisions and excite quarrels; who feel a malignantpleasure in sowing discord, dissevering by fiction and falsehood the closest friendships and the dearest socialties, impelling to endless hatred and deadly combat the fondest friends. Of such pestilent characters the Lordexpresses His detestation in these words: Thou shalt not be a detractor nor a whisperer among the people. Ofthis description were many of the advisers of Saul, who strove to alienate the king's affection from David and toarouse his enmity against him.

还有那些狡黠的激起分裂和争端的人,他们在播洒不和谐的种子时候,获得了邪恶的乐趣,他们用捏造和谎言来伤害最紧密的友谊和最亲密的社会关系,把友谊的朋友变为无尽的仇恨与争斗。上主对这些有害的人格表达了祂的憎恶,说:不可去毁谤你本族人(肋未19:16)。撒乌耳的臣仆们就是例子,他们努力离间君王和达味的关系,挑唆他的敌意。

 

This Commandment Forbids Flattery

本诫命禁止奉承巴结

 

Among the transgressors of this Commandment are to be numbered those fawners and sycophants who, byflattery and insincere praise, gain the hearing and good will of those whose favour, money, and honours theyseek, calling good evil, and evil good, as the Prophet says. Such characters David admonishes us to repel andbanish from our society. The just man, he says, shall correct me in mercy, and shall reprove me; but let not theoil of the sinner fatten my head. This class of persons do not, it is true, speak ill of their neighbour; but theygreatly injure him, since by praising his sins they cause him to continue in vice to the end of his life.

那些阿谀奉承溜须拍马之人,也违反本诫命。如同先知所说,他们通过奉承和不真诚的赞扬,通过把美德称为邪恶,把邪恶称为美德,为自己赚取好感,金钱和荣誉。达味告诫我们,对这种人要从我们的社会中驱逐和禁止。他说:义人责打我,算是我的恩遇,他责斥我,是给我头的傅油(圣咏141:5)。这种人的确不说邻人的坏话,但是却深深的伤害了邻人,因为赞扬邻人的罪,使他们继续的陷入在生命的错误目的中。

 

Of this species of flattery the most pernicious is that which proposes to itself for object the injury and the ruin ofothers. Thus Saul, when he sought to expose David to the sword and fury of the Philistines, in order to bringabout his death, addressed him in these soothing words: Behold my eldest daughter Merob, her will I give theeto wife: only be a valiant man and fight the battles of the Lord. In the same way the Jews thus insidiouslyaddressed our Lord: Master, we know that thou art a true speaker, and teachest the way of God in truth.

在奉承这一类中,最恶毒的就是以伤害和毁灭他人为目标的那种奉承。因此撒乌耳试图将达味陷入在培肋舍特人的剑和愤怒中,就是想让他死于其中,对他说这些安慰的假话:看,我要把我的长女默辣布嫁给你为妻,只要你为我勇敢服务,为上主作战(撒慕尔纪上18:17)。犹太人也是用同样的方法阴险的对我主说:师傅!我们知道你是真诚的,不顾忌任何人,因为你不看人的情面,祗按真理教授天主的道路。给凯撒纳丁税,可以不可以?我们该纳不该纳?(马尔谷12:14

 

 

Still more pernicious is the language addressed sometimes by friends and relations to a person suffering with amortal disease, and on the point of death, when they assure him that there is no danger of dying, telling him tobe of good spirits, dissuading him from confession, as though the very thought should fill him with melancholy,and finally withdrawing his attention from all care and thought of the dangers which beset him in the lastperilous hour.

更邪恶的是有时候朋友和亲戚对患大病的亲友在死时的虚假安慰,说没有死亡危险,会有好精神的,劝阻病人不去告解,就好像告解这想法会使他充满忧郁,最终使他注意力从最后时刻对危险的关注和想法中偏离。

 

This Commandment Forbids Lies Of All Kinds

本诫命禁止所有类型的谎言

 

In a word, lies of every sort are prohibited, especially those that cause grave injury to anyone, while mostimpious of all is a lie uttered against or regarding religion.

一句话,所有类型的谎言都禁止,特别是那些对他人造成严重伤害的,然而其中最不敬的就是反对或者与信仰有关的谎言。

 

God is also grievously offended by those attacks and slanders which are termed lampoons, and other

defamatory publications of this kind.

那些被称为讽刺作品和诽谤出版物的,它们对天主的攻击和造谣也严重的冒犯了天主。

 

To deceive by a jocose or officious lie, even though it helps or harms no one, is, notwithstanding, altogetherunworthy; for thus the Apostle admonishes us: Putting away lying, speak ye the truth. This practice begets astrong tendency to frequent and serious lying, and from jocose lying men contract the habit of lying, lose allreputation for truth, and ultimately find it necessary, in order to gain belief, to have recourse to continualswearing.

开玩笑式的欺骗或者说非正式的谎言,虽然没有伤害他人,但是也不值得如此做。因为宗徒教育我们说:你们应该戒绝谎言,彼此应该说实话(厄弗所书4:12)。这种行为会产生频繁严重撒谎的强烈倾向。并且经常开玩笑骗人养成了撒谎的习惯,失去讲真话的声誉,以至于他最终为了赢得信任,不得不经常依赖于不间断的发誓。

 

This Commandment Forbids Hypocrisy

本诫命禁止虚伪

 

Finally, the first part of this Commandment prohibits dissimulation. It is sinful not only to speak, but to actdeceitfully. Actions, as well as words, are signs of what is in our mind; and hence our Lord, rebuking thePharisees, frequently calls them hypocrites. So, far with regard to the negative, which is the first part of thisCommandment.

最后,本诫命的第一部分禁止伪装假装。不仅言有罪,欺诈行为也有罪。行为与言说是一样的,都是我们思想的外在表象。因此我主斥责法理塞人,经常说他们是假善人。因此,关于本诫命的第一部分,即禁令部分就到此为止。

 

Positive Part of this Commandment

本诫命的肯定部分

 

Judges Must Pass Sentence According To Law And Justice

法官判案必须依据法律和正义

 

We now come to explain what the Lord commands in the second part. Its nature and purpose require that trialsbe conducted on principles of strict justice and according to law. It requires that no one usurp judicial powers orauthority, for, as the Apostle writes, it were unjust to judge another man's servant.

我们现在来解释我主命令的第二部分。其本质和目的是要求审判要根据严格的正义和法律进行。并且要求任何人不能篡夺法官审判权力,因为,就像宗徒写道:你是谁,你竟敢判断别人的家仆(罗马书14:4)。

 

Again it requires that no one pass sentence without a sufficient knowledge of the case. This was the sin of thepriests and scribes who passed judgment on St. Stephen. The magistrates of Philippi furnish another example.They have beaten us publicly, says the Apostle, uncondemned, men that are Romans, and have cast us intoprison; and now do they thrust us out privately.

本诫命还要求,在对案例没有足够了解的情况下,不能下判决。这就是祭司们和书记们审判圣斯德望的罪(大事录7)。另外,斐理伯的治安官之所为也提供了另一个例子。宗徒说:「我们是罗马人,还没有定罪,就公开鞭打我们,又把我们下在监里;现在却要秘密地赶我们出去吗﹖绝对不可!他们得亲自来领我们出去!」(大事录16:37

 

This Commandment also requires that the innocent be not condemned, nor the guilty acquitted; and that (thedecision) be not influenced by money, or favour, hatred or love. For so Moses admonished the elders whom hehad constituted judges of the people: Judge that which is just, whether he be one of your country or a stranger.There shall be no difference of persons, you shall hear the little as well as the great; neither shall you respectany man's person, because it is the judgment of God.

本诫命还要求不得惩罚无辜者,不能卸脱有罪者;判决不能受金钱、喜好、憎恶的影响。所以梅瑟提醒作为法官的老年人,说:无论是兄弟彼此诉讼,或与外方人诉讼,都应秉公审断。审案时不可偏袒,无论贵贱,同样听断;任何人都不要怕,因为审判是天主的事(申命记1:16

 

Witnesses Must Give Testimony Truthfully

证人必须按照事实作证

 

With regard to an accused person who is conscious of his own guilt, God commands him to confess the truth, ifhe is interrogated judicially. By that confession he, in some sort, bears witness to, and proclaims the praise andglory of God; and of this we have a proof in these words of Josue, when exhorting Achan to confess the truth:My son, give glory to the Lord the God of Israel.

关于那些意识到自己罪行的被指控之人,如果他被司法质询,则天主命令他要承认事实。通过承认犯罪事实,他在某种程度上做了见证,并宣布和赞扬了天主的荣耀。关于这一点,在若苏厄书中,我们有证言,当若苏厄劝诫阿干承认事实时,说:我儿!你应归光荣于上主,以色列的天主,向他认罪(若苏厄7:19)。

 

But as this Commandment chiefly concerns witnesses, the pastor should give them special attention. The spiritof the precept not only prohibits false testimony, but also commands the truth to be told. In human affairs, tobear testimony to the truth is a matter of the highest importance, because there are innumerable things of whichwe must be ignorant unless we arrive at a knowledge of them on the faith of witnesses. In matters with whichwe are not personally acquainted and which we need to know, there is nothing so important as true evidence.

但本诫命主要是针对证人的,牧者应给他们以特别的注意。本诫命精神不仅禁止假见证,还命令讲事实。在一切人类事务中,讲真话有最高的重要性,因为有无数的事情是我们无法得知的,除非我们靠着证言的信仰来了解他们。对于那些我们个人不熟悉的事物,以及我们需要学习了解的事务,没有什么比真实的证据更重要的。

 

Hence the words of St. Augustine: He who conceals the truth and he who utters falsehood are both guilty; theone, because he is unwilling to render a service; the other, because he has the will to do an injury.

因此,圣奥斯定说:隐藏真相的,与说假话的都有罪;第一个是因为他不愿意提供服务,第二个是因为他愿意伤害他人。

 

We are not, however, at all times, obliged to disclose the truth; but when, in a court of justice, a witness islegally interrogated by the judge, he is emphatically bound to tell the whole truth. Here, however, witnessesshould be most circumspect, lest, trusting too much to memory, they affirm for certain what they have not fullyascertained.

然而我们并非在任何时刻都有义务揭露真相;但是,在正义的法庭上时,在法官合法的询问证人时,他在这时需要肯定有讲真相的义务。此时,证人应该最审慎,以免由于过度信任回忆,确认了那些并没有完全把握的事实。

 

Lawyers And Plaintiffs Must Be Guided By Love Of Justice

律师和原告必须被正义之爱所引导

 

Attorneys and counsel, plaintiffs and prosecutors, remain still to be treated of. The two former should not refuseto contribute their services and legal assistance, when the necessities of others call for their aid. They shoulddeal generously with the poor. They should not defend an unjust cause, prolong lawsuits by trickery, norencourage them for the sake of gain. As to remuneration for their services and labours, let them be guided bythe principles of justice and of equity.

现在来讨论律师和法律顾问,原告和控方。前两者不应拒绝提供他们的服务和合法帮助,当有人求助他们协助时。他们应该慷慨的帮助穷人。他们不应该为不正义的理由辩护,用手段花招延长诉讼,也不应鼓励他们赚取利润。至于如何衡量他们服务和辛劳的报酬,应按照正义和平等的原则进行。

 

Plaintiffs and prosecutors, on their side, are to be warned not to be led by the influence of love, or hatred, or anyother undue motive into exposing anyone to danger through unjust charges:

另一方面,要警告原告和检方不应受到爱或恨的影响,或者受到其他过分的冲动,试图通过不正义的指控置某人于危险中。

 

All Must Speak Truthfully And With Charity

所有人都必须以爱德讲真话

 

To all conscientious persons is addressed the divine command that in all their intercourse with society, in everyconversation, they should speak the truth at all times from the sincerity of their hearts; that they should utternothing injurious to the reputation of another, not even of those by whom they know they have been injured andpersecuted. For they should always remember that between them and others there exists such a close socialbond that they are all members of the same body.

对所有有良知的人,要教导他们神圣命令要求他们,在一切社会交往中,每个交谈中,他们都应该时刻发自内心真诚的讲真话。他们不应该说任何伤害他人名誉的话,也不说那些伤害和折磨过他们的人的话。因为,他们永远记住,在他们与别人之间,永远存在亲密的社会联系,那就是大家都是同一个奥体内的肢体。

 

Inducements To Truthfulness

劝导要诚实

 

In order that the faithful may be more disposed to avoid the vice of lying, the pastor should place before themthe extreme lowness and disgrace of this sin. In the Sacred Scriptures the devil is called the father of lies; for as,he stood not in the truth, he is a liar and the father thereof.

为了使信友能更好的避免撒谎的恶习,牧者应在信友面前展示撒谎罪行的极度低劣和耻辱。在圣经中,撒殚被称为谎言之父,因为他不与真理为伍,他是骗子和骗子之父。

 

To banish so great a sin, (the pastor) should add the mischievous consequences of lying; but since they areinnumerable, he must be content with pointing out the chief kinds of these evils and calamities.

为了排除这种罪,牧者应补充撒谎造成的有害后果;但是这太多了,无法穷尽,牧者必须指出其中最主要的邪恶和不幸的种类。

 

In the first place, he should show how grievously lies and deceit offend God and how deeply they are hated byGod. This he should prove from the words of Solomon: Six things there are which the Lord hateth, and theseventh his soul detesteth: haughty eyes, a lying tongue, hands that shed innocent blood, a heart that devisethwicked plots, feet that are swift to run into mischief, a deceitful witness that uttereth lies, etc. Who, then, canprotect or save from severest chastisements the man who is thus the object of God's special hate?

首先,他应展示谎言和欺诈是多么严重的得罪了天主,天主是多么的恨这些事。从撒罗满的话,可以证明:上主憎恨的事,共有六件,连他心里最厌恶的事,共有七件:傲慢的眼睛,撒谎的舌头,流无辜者血的手,策划阴谋的心,疾趋行恶的脚,说谎的假见证,和在兄弟间搬弄是非的人(箴言6:16-19)。谁有能力保护和挽救天主憎恨之人所受的最严厉的惩罚呢?

 

Again, what more wicked, what more base than, as St. James says, with the same tongue, by which we blessGod and the Father, to curse men, who are made after the image and likeness of God, so that out of the samefountain flows sweet and bitter water. The tongue, which was before employed in giving praise and glory toGod, afterwards, as far as it is able, by lying treats Him with ignominy and dishonour. Hence liars are excludedfrom a participation in the bliss of heaven. To David asking, Lord! who shall dwell in thy tabernacle? the HolySpirit answers: He that speaketh truth in his heart, who hath not used deceit in his tongue.

此外,如同圣雅各伯所说,最邪恶的就是用赞美天主圣父的口舌诅咒按照天主形象造的人,如同从同一个泉源流出甜水和苦水。曾经赞美光荣天主的口舌,之后却用撒谎来羞辱和败坏天主。因此,撒谎者是被排除在天堂的永福之外的。达味问:上主,谁能在你的帐幕里居住?圣神回答说:只有那行为正直,作事公平,从自己心里说诚实话的人。(圣咏15:1-2

 

Lying is also attended with this very great evil that it is an almost incurable disease. For since the guilt of thecalumniator cannot be pardoned, unless satisfaction be made to the calumniated person, and since, as we havealready observed, this duty is difficult for those who are deterred from its performance by false shame and afoolish idea of dignity, we cannot doubt that he who continues in this sin is destined to the unendingpunishments of hell. Let no one indulge the hope of obtaining the pardon of his calumnies or detractions, untilhe has repaired the injury which they have inflicted on the honour or fame of another, whether this was done ina court of justice, or in private and familiar conversation.

撒谎也伴随着极大的邪恶,就是这几乎是不可治愈的疾病。因为,栽赃者无法被原谅,除非他能对被造谣者进行赔补,然而就像我们日常看到的,持有虚假的耻辱观和愚蠢的尊贵观念的人,是很难履行这项职责的,我们很难怀疑陷入这种罪行无法自拔所面临的地狱永罚。不要抱有获得原谅的希望,除非他能赔补了他对他人声誉荣耀的伤害,无论是否在正义的法庭上,还是在私人或家庭的对话中。

 

But the evil consequences of lying are widespread and extend to society at large. By duplicity and lying, goodfaith and truth, which form the closest links of human society, are dissolved, confusion ensues, and men seem todiffer in nothing from demons.

但是撒谎的邪恶后果广泛传播,延伸至社会的每个角落。美善和真理作为链接人类社会的最亲密的纽带,被假舌两面和谎言所瓦解,混乱随后发生,人们与恶魔看起来没有区别。

 

How To Avoid Lying

如何避免撒谎

 

The pastor should also teach that loquacity is to be avoided. By avoiding loquacity other evils will be obviated,and a great preventive opposed to lying, from which loquacious persons can scarcely abstain.

牧者应教导,要避免多言善谈。做到了避免多言,其他的邪恶就能被避免,是一个很好的避免谎言的预防办法,因为善谈之人很难避免谎言。

 

Excuses for Lying Refuted

斥责撒谎的借口

 

The Plea Of Prudence

谨慎的借口

 

There are those who seek to justify their duplicity either by the unimportance of what they say, or by theexample of the worldly wise who, they claim, lie at the proper time. The pastor should correct such erroneousideas by answering what is most true, namely, that the wisdom of the flesh is death. He should exhort hislisteners in all their difficulties and dangers to trust in God, not in the artifice of lying; for those who haverecourse to subterfuge, plainly show that they trust more to their own prudence than to the providence of God.

有些人试图为他们的谎言找借口,或者说在不重要的事情上撒谎,又或者说在恰当的时候撒谎是一种世俗的聪明。牧者应纠正这种错误观念,回答他们:只有这个是真实的,那就是血肉的智慧是死亡。牧者应力劝他的听众,无论在任何困难和危险中,都要信任依赖天主,而不是依靠谎言;对于那些依靠诡计的人,只要直白的让他们知道,他们更信任自己的谨慎而不是天主的圣意。

 

The Plea Of Revenge

复仇的借口

 

Those who lay the blame of their own falsehood on others, who first deceived them by lies, are to be taught theunlawfulness of avenging their own wrongs, and that evil is not to be rendered for evil, but rather that evil is tobe overcome by good. Even if it were lawful to return evil for evil, it would not be to our interest to harmourselves in order to get revenge. The man who seeks revenge by uttering falsehood inflicts very serious injuryon himself.

有些人将对自己撒谎的指责归咎于他人首先欺骗了自己,要教导这些人用自己的错误进行复仇是不合法的,不能用邪恶制服邪恶,而是用良善制服邪恶。即便用恶制恶是合法的,那也不能用自我伤害的办法去复仇。那些用撒谎来复仇的人,实际上对自己造成了严重的伤害。

 

The Pleas Of Frailty, Habit, And Bad Example

用软弱、习惯和坏榜样当借口

 

Those who plead human frailty are to be taught that it is a duty of religion to implore the divine assistance, andnot to yield to human infirmity.

那些用人性软弱当借口的,要教育他们学会向上主祈求帮助是一个信仰责任,不要屈服于人性的软弱。

 

Those who excuse themselves by habit are to be admonished to endeavour to acquire the contrary habit ofspeaking the truth; particularly as those who sin habitually are more guilty than others.

那些用养成习惯为自己开脱的,要教导他们努力养成讲真话的习惯,特别是对那些比他人更习惯性犯罪的人。

 

There are some who adduce in their own justification the example of others, who, they contend, constantlyindulge in falsehood and perjury. Such persons should be undeceived by reminding them that bad men are notto be imitated, but reproved and corrected; and that, when we ourselves are addicted to the same vice, ouradmonitions have less influence in reprehending and correcting it in others.

那些为自己辩护说是自己虽然反对,但是受别人的坏榜样经常引诱而撒谎和做伪证。要教育这种人不要效法坏人,而是应该谴责和纠正他们。否则当我们自己受到了邪恶的诱惑时,我们对理解和纠正他人的错误的谴责之影响力就变小了。

 

The Pleas Of Convenience, Amusement, And Advantage

那些以方便,娱乐和有好处为借口

 

With regard to those who defend their conduct by saying that to speak the truth is often attended withinconvenience, priests should answer that (such an excuse) is an accusation, not a defence, since it is the duty ofa Christian to suffer any inconvenience rather than utter a falsehood.

对于那些为自己辩称说,讲真话经常伴随着不方便,祭司们应回答,这种借口是一个指控,而不是辩护。因为要承受不便而不是选择谎言,这是基督徒的责任。

 

There remain two other classes of persons who seek to justify lying: those who say that they tell lies for the sakeof amusement, and those who plead motives of interest, claiming that without recourse to lies, they can neitherbuy nor sell to advantage. The pastor should endeavour to reform both these kinds of liars. He should correctthe former by showing how strong a habit of sinning is contracted by their practice, and by strongly impressingupon them the truth that for every idle word they shall render an account. As for the second class, he shouldupbraid them with greater severity, because their very excuse is a most serious accusation against themselves,since they show thereby that they yield no faith or confidence to these words of God: Seek first the kingdom ofGod and his justice, and all these things shall be added unto you.

还有两类人试图为撒谎正名:那些说为了娱乐而撒谎的,以及那些为了利益的动机而撒谎的,说如果不借助谎言,他们就无法达成买卖交易。牧者应努力改造这两类说谎者。对前者,他应展示他们所做的是一个习惯性的犯罪,要加强他们对真理的认识,耶稣说:人所说的每句废话,在审判之日,都要交账(玛窦12:36)。对于后者,牧者应更严厉的批评他们,因为他们的借口是对自己最严重的控诉,由于他们展示了他们对天主圣言的毫无信仰:你们先该寻求天主的国和它的义德,这一切自会加给你们。(玛窦6:33)


 

 


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