小德兰爱心书屋  
 
小德兰爱心书屋
 
天主教中英对照(新约)列表
·Matthew Chapter 1(玛窦福音)
·Matthew Chapter 2
·Matthew Chapter 3
·Matthew Chapter 4
·Matthew Chapter 5
·Matthew Chapter 6
·Matthew Chapter 7
·Matthew Chapter 8
·Matthew Chapter 9
·Matthew Chapter 10
·Matthew Chapter 11
·Matthew Chapter 12
·Matthew Chapter 13
·Matthew Chapter 14
·Matthew Chapter 15
·Matthew Chapter 16
·Matthew Chapter 17
·Matthew Chapter 18
·Matthew Chapter 19
·Matthew Chapter 20
·Matthew Chapter 21
·Matthew Chapter 22
·Matthew Chapter 23
·Matthew Chapter 24
·Matthew Chapter 25
·Matthew Chapter 26
·Matthew Chapter 27
·Mark Chapter 1(玛尔谷福音)
·Mark Chapter 2
·Mark Chapter 3
·Mark Chapter 4
·Mark Chapter 5
·Mark Chapter 6
·Mark Chapter 7
·Mark Chapter 8
·Mark Chapter 9
·Mark Chapter 10
·Mark Chapter 11
·Mark Chapter 12
·Mark Chapter 13
·Mark Chapter 14
·Mark Chapter 15
·Mark Chapter 16
·Luke Chapter 1(路加福音)
·Luke Chapter 2
·Luke Chapter 3
·Luke Chapter 4
·Luke Chapter 5
·Luke Chapter 6
·Luke Chapter 7
·Luke Chapter 8
·Luke Chapter 9
·Luke Chapter 10
·Luke Chapter 11
·Luke Chapter 12
·Luke Chapter 13
·Luke Chapter 14
·Luke Chapter 15
·Luke Chapter 16
·Luke Chapter 17
·Luke Chapter 18
·Luke Chapter 19
·Luke Chapter 20
·Luke Chapter 21
·Luke Chapter 22
·Luke Chapter 23
·Luke Chapter 24
·John Chapter 1(若望福音)
·John Chapter 2
·John Chapter 3
·John Chapter 4
·John Chapter 5
·John Chapter 6
·John Chapter 7
·John Chapter 8
·John Chapter 9
·John Chapter 10
·John Chapter 11
·John Chapter 12
·John Chapter 13
·John Chapter 14
·John Chapter 15
·John Chapter 16
·John Chapter 17
·John Chapter 18
·John Chapter 19
·John Chapter 20
·John Chapter 21
·Acts Chapter 1(宗徒大事录)
·Acts Chapter 2
·Acts Chapter 3
·Acts Chapter 4
·Acts Chapter 5
·Acts Chapter 6
·Acts Chapter 7
·Acts Chapter 8
·Acts Chapter 9
·Acts Chapter 10
·Acts Chapter 11
·Acts Chapter 12
·Acts Chapter 13
·Acts Chapter 14
·Acts Chapter 15
·Acts Chapter 16
·Acts Chapter 17
·Acts Chapter 18
·Acts Chapter 19
·Acts Chapter 20
·Acts Chapter 21
·Acts Chapter 22
·Acts Chapter 23
·Acts Chapter 24
·Acts Chapter 25
·Acts Chapter 26
·Acts Chapter 27
·Acts Chapter 28
·Romans Chapter 1(罗马人书)
·Romans Chapter 2
·Romans Chapter 3
·Romans Chapter 4
·Romans Chapter 5
·Romans Chapter 6
·Romans Chapter 7
·Romans Chapter 8
·Romans Chapter 9
·Romans Chapter 10
·Romans Chapter 11
·Romans Chapter 12
·Romans Chapter 13
·Romans Chapter 14
·Romans Chapter 15
·Romans Chapter 16
·1 Corinthians Chapter 1[格前]
·1 Corinthians Chapter 2
·1 Corinthians Chapter 3
·1 Corinthians Chapter 4
·1 Corinthians Chapter 5
·1 Corinthians Chapter 6
·1 Corinthians Chapter 7
·1 Corinthians Chapter 8
·1 Corinthians Chapter 9
·1 Corinthians Chapter 10
·1 Corinthians Chapter 11
·1 Corinthians Chapter 12
·1 Corinthians Chapter 13
·1 Corinthians Chapter 14
·1 Corinthians Chapter 15
·1 Corinthians Chapter 16
·2 Corinthians Chapter 1[格后]
·2 Corinthians Chapter 2
·2 Corinthians Chapter 3
·2 Corinthians Chapter 4
·2 Corinthians Chapter 5
·2 Corinthians Chapter 6
·2 Corinthians Chapter 7
·2 Corinthians Chapter 8
·2 Corinthians Chapter 9
·2 Corinthians Chapter 10
·2 Corinthians Chapter 11
·2 Corinthians Chapter 12
·2 Corinthians Chapter 13
·Galatians Chapter 1迦拉达书
·Galatians Chapter 2
·Galatians Chapter 3
·Galatians Chapter 4
·Galatians Chapter 5
·Galatians Chapter 6
·Ephesians Chapter 1厄弗所书
·Ephesians Chapter 2
·Ephesians Chapter 3
·Ephesians Chapter 4
·Ephesians Chapter 5
·Ephesians Chapter 6
·Philippians Chapter 1斐理伯书
·Philippians Chapter 2
·Philippians Chapter 3
·Philippians Chapter 4
·Colossians Chapter 1哥罗森书
·Colossians Chapter 2
·Colossians Chapter 3
·Colossians Chapter 4
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 1[得前
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 2
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 3
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 4
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 5
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 1[得后
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 2
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 3
·1 Timothy Chapter 1弟茂德前书
·1 Timothy Chapter 2
·1 Timothy Chapter 3
·1 Timothy Chapter 4
·1 Timothy Chapter 5
·1 Timothy Chapter 6
·2 Timothy Chapter 1弟茂德后书
·2 Timothy Chapter 2
·2 Timothy Chapter 3
·2 Timothy Chapter 4
·Titus Chapter 1弟铎书
·Titus Chapter 2
·Titus Chapter 3
·Philemon 费肋孟书
·Hebrews Chapter 1希伯来书
·Hebrews Chapter 2
·Hebrews Chapter 3
·Hebrews Chapter 4
·Hebrews Chapter 5
·Hebrews Chapter 6
·Hebrews Chapter 7
·Hebrews Chapter 8
·Hebrews Chapter 9
·Hebrews Chapter 10
·Hebrews Chapter 11
·Hebrews Chapter 12
·Hebrews Chapter 13
·James Chapter 1雅各伯书
·James Chapter 2
·James Chapter 3
·James Chapter 4
·James Chapter 5
·Matthew Chapter 28
·1 Peter Chapter 1伯多禄前书
·1 Peter Chapter 2
·1 Peter Chapter 3
·1 Peter Chapter 4
·1 Peter Chapter 5
·2 Peter Chapter 1伯多禄后书
·2 Peter Chapter 2
·2 Peter Chapter 3
·1 John Chapter 1若望一书
·1 John Chapter 2
·1 John Chapter 3
·1 John Chapter 4
·1 John Chapter 5
·2 John 若望二书
·3 John 若望三书
·Jude 犹达书
·Revelation Chapter 1若望默示录
·Revelation Chapter 2
·Revelation Chapter 3
·Revelation Chapter 4
·Revelation Chapter 5
·Revelation Chapter 6
·Revelation Chapter 7
·Revelation Chapter 8
·Revelation Chapter 9
·Revelation Chapter 10
·Revelation Chapter 11
·Revelation Chapter 12
·Revelation Chapter 13
·Revelation Chapter 14
·Revelation Chapter 15
·Revelation Chapter 16
·Revelation Chapter 17
·Revelation Chapter 18
·Revelation Chapter 19
·Revelation Chapter 20
·Revelation Chapter 21
·Revelation Chapter 22
「我的民因无知识而灭亡。你弃掉知识,我也必弃掉你,使你不再给我作祭司。」
Matthew Chapter 5
Matthew Chapter 5
浏览次数:3104 更新时间:2009-8-20
 
 

Matthew
Chapter 5

1 1 When he saw the crowds, 2 he went up the mountain, and after he had sat down, his disciples came to him.

耶稣一见群众,就上了山,坐下;他的门徒上他跟前来,

2 He began to teach them, saying:

他遂开口教训他们说:

3 3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, 4 for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

"神贫的人是有福的,因为天国是他们的。

4 5 Blessed are they who mourn, for they will be comforted.

哀恸的人是有福的,因为他们要受安慰。

5 6 Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the land.

温良的人是有福的,因为他们要承受土地。

6 Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for righteousness, 7 for they will be satisfied.

饥渴慕义的人是有福的,因为他们要得饱饫。

7 Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy.

怜悯人的人是有福的,因为他们要受怜悯。

8 8 Blessed are the clean of heart, for they will see God.

心里洁净的人是有福的,因为他们要看见天主。

9 Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God.

缔造和平的人是有福的,因为他们要称为天主的子女。

10 Blessed are they who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, 9 for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

为义而受迫害的人是有福的,因为天国是他们的。

11 Blessed are you when they insult you and persecute you and utter every kind of evil against you (falsely) because of me.

几时人为了我而辱骂迫害你们,捏造一切坏话毁谤你们,你们是有福的。

12 10 Rejoice and be glad, for your reward will be great in heaven. Thus they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

你们欢喜踊跃罢!因为你们在天上的赏报是丰厚的,因为在你们以前的先知,人也曾这样迫害过他们。"

13 11 12 You are the salt of the earth. But if salt loses its taste, with what can it be seasoned? It is no longer good for anything but to be thrown out and trampled underfoot.

“你们是地上的盐,盐若失了味,可用什么使它再咸呢?它再毫无用途,只好在外边,任人践踏罢了。

14 You are the light of the world. A city set on a mountain cannot be hidden.

你们是世界的光;建在山上的城,是不能隐藏的。

15 Nor do they light a lamp and then put it under a bushel basket; it is set on a lampstand, where it gives light to all in the house.

人点灯,并不是放在斗底下,而是放在灯台上,照耀屋中所有的人。

16 Just so, your light must shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your heavenly Father.

照样,你们的光也当在人前照耀,好使他们看见你们的善行,光荣你们在天之父。”

17 13 Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have come not to abolish but to fulfill.

“你们不要以为我来是废除法律或先知;我来不是为废除,而是为成全。

18 Amen, I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or the smallest part of a letter will pass from the law, until all things have taken place.

我实在告诉你们:既使天地过去了,一撇或一画也决不会从法律上过去,必待一切完成。

19 Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven. But whoever obeys and teaches these commandments will be called greatest in the kingdom of heaven

所以,谁若废除这些诫命中最小的一条,也这样教训人,在天国里,他将称为最小的;但谁若实行,也这样教训人,这人在天国里将称为大的。

20 I tell you, unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven.

我告诉你们:除非你们的义德超过经师和法利塞人的义德,你们决进不了天国。

21 15 16 You have heard that it was said to your ancestors, 'You shall not kill; and whoever kills will be liable to judgment.'

你们一向听过给古人说:‘不可杀人!’谁若杀了人,应受裁判。

22 17 But I say to you, whoever is angry 18 with his brother will be liable to judgment, and whoever says to his brother, 'Raqa,' will be answerable to the Sanhedrin, and whoever says, 'You fool,' will be liable to fiery Gehenna.

我却对你们说:凡向自己弟兄发怒的,就要受裁判,谁若向自己的弟兄说“傻子”,就要受议会的裁判;谁若说“疯子”,就要受火狱的罚。

23 Therefore, if you bring your gift to the altar, and there recall that your brother has anything against you,

所以,你若在祭坛前,要献你的礼物时,在那里想起你的弟兄有什么怨你的事,

24 leave your gift there at the altar, go first and be reconciled with your brother, and then come and offer your gift.

就把你的礼物留在那里,留在祭坛前,先去与你的弟兄和好,然后再来献你的礼物。

25 Settle with your opponent quickly while on the way to court with him. Otherwise your opponent will hand you over to the judge, and the judge will hand you over to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison.

当你和你的对头还在路上,赶快与他和解,免得对头把你交与判官,判官交给差役,把你投在狱里。

26 Amen, I say to you, you will not be released until you have paid the last penny.

我实在告诉你。非到你还了最后的一文,决不能从那里出来。

27 19 You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.'

你们一向听说过:‘不可奸淫!’

28 But I say to you, everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart.

我却对你们说:凡注视妇女,有意贪恋她的,他已在心里奸淫了她。

29 20 If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one of your members than to have your whole body thrown into Gehenna.

若是你的右眼使你跌倒,剜出它来,从你身上扔掉,因为丧失你一个肢体,比你全身投入地狱里,为你更好; <, /SPAN>

30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one of your members than to have your whole body go into Gehenna.

若你的右手使你跌倒,砍下它来,从你身上扔掉,因为丧失你一个肢体,比你全身投入地狱里,为你更好。

31 21 It was also said, 'Whoever divorces his wife must give her a bill of divorce.'

又说过‘谁若休妻,就该给她休书。’

32 But I say to you, whoever divorces his wife (unless the marriage is unlawful) causes her to commit adultery, and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.

我却给你们说:除了姘居外,凡休自己的妻子的,便是叫她受奸污;并且谁若娶被休的妇人,就是犯奸淫。

33 22 Again you have heard that it was said to your ancestors, 'Do not take a false oath, but make good to the Lord all that you vow.'

你们又一向听过对古人说:‘不可发虚誓,要向上主偿还你的誓愿!’

34 But I say to you, do not swear at all; 23 not by heaven, for it is God's throne;

我却对你们说:你们总不可发誓:不可指天,因为天是天主的宝座;

35 nor by the earth, for it is his footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King.

不可指地,因为地是他的脚凳;不可指耶路撒冷,因为她是大王的城市;

36 Do not swear by your head, for you cannot make a single hair white or black.

也不可指你的头发誓,因为你不能使一根头发变白或变黑。

37 24 Let yourYes mean Yes, and your No' mean No. Anything more is from the evil one.

你们的话该当是:是就说是,非就说非;其它多余的便是出于邪恶。

38 25 You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.'

你们一向听说过:‘以眼还眼,以牙还牙。’

39 But I say to you, offer no resistance to one who is evil. When someone strikes you on (your) right cheek, turn the other one to him as well.

我却对你们说:不要抵抗恶人;而且,若有人掌击你的右颊,你把另一面也转给他。

40 If anyone wants to go to law with you over your tunic, hand him your cloak as well.

那愿与你争讼,拿你的内衣的,你连外衣也让给他。

41 Should anyone press you into service for one mile, 26 go with him for two miles.

若有人强迫你走一千步,你就同他走两千步。

42 Give to the one who asks of you, and do not turn your back on one who wants to borrow.

求你的,就给他;愿向你借贷的,你不要拒绝。

43 27 You have heard that it was said, You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.'

你们一向听说过:‘你应爱你的近人,恨你的仇人!’

44 But I say to you, love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you,

我却对你们说:你们当爱你们的仇人,当为迫害你们的人祈祷,

45 that you may be children of your heavenly Father, for he makes his sun rise on the bad and the good, and causes rain to fall on the just and the unjust.

好使你们成为你们在天之父的子女,因为他使太阳上升,光照恶人,也光照善人;降雨给义人,也给不义的人。

46 For if you love those who love you, what recompense will you have? Do not the tax collectors 28 do the same?

你们若只爱那爱你们的人,你们还有什么赏报呢?税吏不是也这样作吗?

47 And if you greet your brothers only, what is unusual about that? Do not the pagans do the same? 29

你们若只问候你们的弟兄,你们做了什么特别的呢?外邦人不是也这样做吗?

48 So be perfect, 30 just as your heavenly Father is perfect.

所以你们应当是成全的,如同你们的天父是成全的一样。”

Next Chapter

Footnotes(注解)

1 [5:1-7:29] The first of the five discourses that are a central part of the structure of this gospel. It is the discourse section of the first book and contains sayings of Jesus derived from Q and from M. The Lucan parallel is in that gospel's Sermon on the Plain (Luke 6:20-49), although some of the sayings in Matthew's Sermon on the Mount have their parallels in other parts of Luke. The careful topical arrangement of the sermon is probably not due only to Matthew's editing; he seems to have had a structured discourse of Jesus as one of his sources. The form of that source may have been as follows: four beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-4, 6, 11-12), a section on the new righteousness with illustrations (Matthew 5:17, 20-24, 27-28, 33-48), a section on good works (Matthew 6:1-6, 16-18), and three warnings (Matthew 7:1-2, 15-21, 24-27).

2 [1-2] Unlike Luke's sermon, this is addressed not only to the disciples but to the crowds (see Matthew 7:28).

3 [3-12] The form Blessed are (is) occurs frequently in the Old Testament in the Wisdom literature and in the psalms. Although modified by Matthew, the first, second, fourth, and ninth beatitudes have Lucan parallels (Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20; Matthew 5:4; Luke 6:21, 22; Matthew 5:6; Luke 6:21a; Matthew 5:11-12; Luke 5:22-23). The others were added by the evangelist and are probably his own composition. A few manuscripts, Western and Alexandrian, and many versions and patristic quotations give the second and third beatitudes in inverted order.

4 [3] The poor in spirit: in the Old Testament, the poor (anawim) are those who are without material possessions and whose confidence is in God (see Isaiah 61:1; Zephaniah 2:3; in the NAB the word is translated lowly and humble, respectively, in those texts). Matthew added in spirit in order either to indicate that only the devout poor were meant or to extend the beatitude to all, of whatever social rank, who recognized their complete dependence on God. The same phrase poor in spirit is found in the Qumran literature (1QM 14:7).

5 [4] Cf Isaiah 61:2 (The Lord has sent me) . . . to comfort all who mourn. They will be comforted: here the passive is a theological passive equivalent to the active God will comfort them; so also in Matthew 5:6, 7.

6 [5] Cf Psalm 37:11,. . . the meek shall possess the land. In the psalm the land means the land of Palestine; here it means the kingdom.

7 [6] For righteousness: a Matthean addition. For the meaning of righteousness here, see the note on Matthew 3:14-15.

8 [8] Cf Psalm 24:4. Only one whose heart is clean can take part in the temple worship. To be with God in the temple is described in Psalm 42:2 as beholding his face, but here the promise to the clean of heart is that they will see God not in the temple but in the coming kingdom.

9 [10] Righteousness here, as usually in Matthew, means conduct in conformity with God's will.

10 [12] The prophets who were before you: the disciples of Jesus stand in the line of the persecuted prophets of Israel. Some would see the expression as indicating also that Matthew considered all Christian disciples as prophets.

11 [13-16] By their deeds the disciples are to influence the world for good. They can no more escape notice than a city set on a mountain. If they fail in good works, they are as useless as flavorless salt or as a lamp whose light is concealed.

12 [13] The unusual supposition of salt losing its flavor has led some to suppose that the saying refers to the salt of the Dead Sea that, because chemically impure, could lose its taste.

13 [17-20] This statement of Jesus' position concerning the Mosaic law is composed of traditional material from Matthew's sermon documentation (see the note on Matthew 5:1-7:29), other Q material (cf Matthew 18; Luke 16:17), and the evangelist's own editorial touches. To fulfill the law appears at first to mean a literal enforcement of the law in the least detail: until heaven and earth pass away nothing of the law will pass (Matthew 5:18). Yet the passing away of heaven and earth is not necessarily the end of the world understood, as in much apocalyptic literature, as the dissolution of the existing universe. The turning of the ages comes with the apocalyptic event of Jesus' death and resurrection, and those to whom this gospel is addressed are living in the new and final age, prophesied by Isaiah as the time of new heavens and a new earth (Isaiah 65:17; 66:22). Meanwhile, during Jesus' ministry when the kingdom is already breaking in, his mission remains within the framework of the law, though with significant anticipation of the age to come, as the following antitheses (Matthew 5:21-48) show.

14 [19] Probably these commandments means those of the Mosaic law. But this is an interim ethic until heaven and earth pas, s away.

15 [21-48] Six examples of the conduct demanded of the Christian disciple. Each deals with a commandment of the law, introduced by You have heard that it was said to your ancestors or an equivalent formula, followed by Jesus' teaching in respect to that commandment, But I say to you; thus their designation as antitheses. Three of them accept the Mosaic law but extend or deepen it (Matthew 5:21-22; 27-28; 43-44); three reject it as a standard of conduct for the disciples (Matthew 31-32; 33-37; 38-39).

16 [21] Cf Exodus 20:13; Deut 5:17. The second part of the verse is not an exact quotation from the Old Testament, but cf Exodus 21:12.

17 [22-26] Reconciliation with an offended brother is urged in the admonition of Matthew 5:23-24 and the parable of Matthew 5:25-26 (Luke 12:58-59). The severity of the judge in the parable is a warning of the fate of unrepentant sinners in the coming judgment by God.

18 [22] Anger is the motive behind murder, as the insulting epithets are steps that may lead to it. They, as well as the deed, are all forbidden. Raqa: an Aramaic word reqa' or reqa probably meaning imbecile,""blockhead, a term of abuse. The ascending order of punishment, judgment (by a local council?), trial before the Sanhedrin, condemnation to Gehenna, points to a higher degree of seriousness in each of the offenses. Sanhedrin: the highest judicial body of Judaism. Gehenna: in Hebrew ge-hinnom, Valley of Hinnom, or ge ben-hinnom, Valley of the son of Hinnom, southwest of Jerusalem, the center of an idolatrous cult during the monarchy in which children were offered in sacrifice (see 2 Kings 23:10; Jeremiah 7:31). In Joshua 18:16 (Septuagint, Codex Vaticanus) the Hebrew is transliterated into Greek as gaienna, which appears in the New Testament as geenna. The concept of punishment of sinners by fire either after death or after the final judgment is found in Jewish apocalyptic literature (e.g., Enoch 90:26) but the name geenna is first given to the place of punishment in the New Testament.

19 [27] See Exodus 20:14; Deut 5:18.

20 [29-30] No sacrifice is too great to avoid total destruction in Gehenna.

21 [31-32] See Deut 24:1-5. The Old Testament commandment that a bill of divorce be given to the woman assumes the legitimacy of divorce itself. It is this that Jesus denies. (Unless the marriage is unlawful): this exceptive clause, as it is often called, occurs also in Matthew 19:9, where the Greek is slightly different. There are other sayings of Jesus about divorce that prohibit it absolutely (see Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; cf 1 Cor 7:10, 11b), and most scholars agree that they represent the stand of Jesus. Matthew's exceptive clauses are understood by some as a modification of the absolute prohibition. It seems, however, that the unlawfulness that Matthew gives as a reason why a marriage must be broken refers to a situation peculiar to his community: the violation of Mosaic law forbidding marriage between persons of certain blood and/or legal relationship (Lev 18:6-18). Marriages of that sort were regarded as incest (porneia), but some rabbis allowed Gentile converts to Judaism who had contracted such marriages to remain in them. Matthew's exceptive clause is against such permissiveness for Gentile converts to Christianity; cf the similar prohibition of porneia in Acts 15:20, 29. In this interpretation, the clause constitutes no exception to the absolute prohibition of divorce when the marriage is lawful.

22 [33] This is not an exact quotation of any Old Testament text, but see Exodus 20:7; Deut 5:11; Lev 19:12. The purpose of an oath was to guarantee truthfulness by one's calling on God as witness.

23 [34-36] The use of these oath formularies that avoid the divine name is in fact equivalent to swearing by it, for all the things sworn by are related to God.

24 [37] Let your `Yes' mean `Yes,' and your `No' mean `No': literally, let your speech be 'Yes, yes,' 'No, no.' Some have understood this as a milder form of oath, permitted by Jesus. In view of Matthew 5:34, Do not swear at all, that is unlikely. From the evil one: i.e., from the devil. Oath-taking presupposes a sinful weakness of the human race, namely, the tendency to lie. Jesus demands of his disciples a truthfulness that makes oaths unnecessary.

25 [38-42] See Lev 24:20. The Old Testament commandment was meant to moderate vengeance; the punishment should not exceed the injury done. Jesus forbids even this proportionate retaliation. Of the five examples that follow, only the first deals directly with retaliation for evil; the others speak of liberality.

26 [41] Roman garrisons in Palestine had the right to requisition the property and services of the native population.

27 [43-48] See Lev 19:18. There is no Old Testament commandment demanding hatred of one's enemy, but the neighbor of the love commandment was understood as one's fellow countryman. Both in the Old Testament (Psalm 139:19-22) and at Qumran (1QS 9:21) hatred of evil persons is assumed to be right. Jesus extends the love commandment to the enemy and the persecutor. His disciples, as children of God, must imitate the example of their Father, who grants his gifts of sun and rain to both the good and the bad.

28 [46] Tax collectors: Jews who were engaged in the collection of indirect taxes such as tolls and customs. See the note on Mark 2:14.

29 [47] Jesus' disciples must not be content with merely usual standards of conduct; see Matthew 5:20 where the verb surpass (Greek perisseuo) is cognate with the unusual (perisson) of this verse.

30 [48] Perfect: in the gospels this word occurs only in Matthew, here and in Matthew 19:21. The Lucan parallel (Luke 6:36) demands that the disciples be merciful.

 

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