2 grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 3
3 4 I give thanks to my God at every remembrance of you,
6 I am confident of this, that the one who began a good work in you will continue to complete it until the day of Christ Jesus. 5
7 It is right that I should think this way about all of you, because I hold you in my heart, you who are all partners with me in grace, both in my imprisonment and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel.
8 For God is my witness, how I long for all of you with the affection of Christ Jesus.
13 so that my imprisonment has become well known in Christ throughout the whole praetorium 7 and to all the rest,
14 8 and so that the majority of the brothers, having taken encouragement in the Lord from my imprisonment, dare more than ever to proclaim the word fearlessly.
18 What difference does it make, as long as in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is being proclaimed? And in that I rejoice. 9 Indeed I shall continue to rejoice,
25 And this I know with confidence, that I shall remain and continue in the service of all of you for your progress and joy in the faith,
27 12 Only, conduct yourselves in a way worthy of the gospel of Christ, so that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear news of you, that you are standing firm in one spirit, with one mind struggling together for the faith of the gospel,
30 Yours is the same struggle as you saw in me and now hear about me. 13
2  Slaves: Paul usually refers to himself at the start of a letter as an apostle. Here he substitutes a term suggesting the unconditional obligation of himself and Timothy to the service of Christ, probably because, in view of the good relationship with the Philippians, he wishes to stress his status as a co-servant rather than emphasize his apostolic authority. Reference to Timothy is a courtesy: Paul alone writes the letter, as the singular verb throughout shows (Philippians 1:3-26), and the reference (Philippians 2:19-24) to Timothy in the third person. Overseers: the Greek t, erm episkopos literally means "one who oversees" or "one who supervises," but since the second century it has come to designate the "bishop," the official who heads a local church. In New Testament times this office had not yet developed into the form that it later assumed, though it seems to be well on the way to such development in the Pastorals; see 1 Tim 3:2 and Titus 1:7, where it is translated bishop. At Philippi, however (and at
4 [3-11] As in Romans 1:8-15 and all the Pauline letters except Galatians, a thanksgiving follows, including a direct prayer for the Philippians (Philippians 1:9-11); see the note on Romans 1:8. On their partnership for the gospel (Philippians 1:5), cf Philippians 1:29-30; 4:10-20. Their devotion to the faith and to Paul made them his pride and joy (Philippians 4:1). The characteristics thus manifested are evidence of the community's continuing preparation for the Lord's parousia (Philippians 1:6, 10). Paul's especially warm relationship with the Philippians is suggested here (Philippians 1:7-8) as elsewhere in the letter. The eschatology serves to underscore a concern for ethical growth (Eph 1:9-11), which appears throughout the letter.
5  The day of Christ Jesus: the parousia or triumphant return of Christ, when those loyal to him will be with him and share in his eternal glory; cf Philippians 1:10; 2:16; 3:20-21; 1 Thes 4:17; 5:10; 2 Thes 1:10; 1 Cor 1:8.
6 [12-26] The body of the letter begins with an account of Paul's present situation, i.e., his imprisonment (Philippians 1:12-13; see Introduction), and then goes on with advice for the Philippians (Philippians 1:27-2:18). The advance of the gospel (Philippians 1:12) and the progress of the Philippians in the faith (Philippians 1:25) frame what is said.
7  Praetorium: either the praetorian guard in the city where Paul was imprisoned or the governor's official residence in a Roman province (cf Mark 15:16; Acts 23:35). See Introduction on possible sites.
8 [14-18] Although Paul is imprisoned, Christians there nonetheless go on preaching Christ. But they do so with varied motives, some with personal hostility toward Paul, others out of personal ambition.
9  Rejoice: a major theme in the letter; see Introduction.
10 [19-25] Paul earnestly debates his prospects of martyrdom or continued missionary labor. While he may long to depart this life and thus be with Christ (Philippians 1:23), his overall and final expectation is that he will be delivered from this imprisonment and continue in the service of the Philippians and of others (Philippians 1:19, 25; Philippians 2:24). In either case, Christ is central (Philippians 1:20- 21); if to live means Christ for Paul, death means to be united with Christ in a deeper sense.
12 [27-30] Ethical admonition begins at this early point in the letter, emphasizing steadfastness and congregational unity in the face of possible suffering. The opponents (Philippians 1:28) are those in