2 3 and all the brothers who are with me, to the churches of
4 4 who gave himself for our sins that he might rescue us from the present evil age in accord with the will of our God and Father,
8 But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach (to you) a gospel other than the one that we preached to you, let that one be accursed! 7
10 Am I now currying favor with human beings or God? Or am I seeking to please people? If I were still trying to please people, I would not be a slave of Christ. 8
12 For I did not receive it from a human being, nor was I taught it, but it came through a revelation of Jesus Christ. 10
13 11 For you heard of my former way of life in Judaism, how I persecuted the
16 to reveal his Son to me, so that I might proclaim him to the Gentiles, I did not immediately consult flesh and blood, 12
17 nor did I go up to
19 But I did not see any other of the apostles, only James the brother of the Lord. 16
2  Apostle: because of attacks on his authority in
3  All the brothers: fellow believers in Christ, male and female; cf Gal 3:27-28. Paul usually mentions the co-sender(s) at the start of a letter, but the use of all is unique, adding weight to the letter.
5 [6-10] In place of the usual thanksgiving (see the note on Romans 1:8), Paul, with little to be thankful for in the Galatian situation, expresses amazement at the way his converts are deserting the gospel of Christ for a perverted message. He reasserts the one gospel he has preached (Gal 1:7-9) and begins to defend himself (Gal 1:10).
6  The one who called you: God or Christ, though in actuality Paul was the divine instrument to call the Galatians.
8  This charge by Paul's opponents, that he sought to conciliate people with flattery and to curry favor with God, might refer to his mission practices (cf 1 Cor 9:19-23) but the word still suggests it refers to his pre-Christian days (cf Gal 1:14; Philippians 3:6). The self-description slave of Christ is one Paul often uses in a greeting (Romans 1:1).
9 [11-2:21] Paul's presentation on behalf of his message and of his apostleship reflects rhetorical forms of his day: he first narrates the facts about certain past events (Gal 1:12-2:14) and then states his contention regarding justification by faith as the gospel message (Gal 2:15-21). Further arguments follow from both experience and scripture in Gal 3; 4 before he draws out the ethical consequences (Gal 5:1-6:10). The specific facts that he takes up here to show that his gospel is not a human invention (Gal 1:11) but came through a revelation of Jesus Christ (Gal 1:12) deal with his own calling as a Christian missionary (Gal 1:13-17), his initial relations with the apostles in Jerusalem (Gal 1:18-24), a later journey to Jerusalem (Gal 2:1-10), and an incident in Antioch involving Kephas and persons from James (Gal 2:11-14). The content of Paul's revealed gospel is then set forth in the heart of the letter (Gal 2:15-21).
11 [13-17] Along with Philippians 3:4-11, which also moves from autobiography to its climax in a discussion on justification by faith (cf Gal 2:15-21), this passage is Paul's chief account of the change from his former way of life (Gal 1:13) to service as a Christian missionary (Gal 1:16); cf Acts 9:1-22; 22:4-16; 26:9-18. Paul himself does not use the term ＂conversion＂ but stresses revelation (Gal 1:12, 16). In Gal 1:15 his language echoes the Old Testament prophetic call of Jeremiah. Unlike the account in Acts (cf Acts 22:4-16), the calling of Paul here includes the mission to proclaim Christ to the Gentiles (Gal 1:16).
13  Arabia: probably the region of the Nabataean Arabs, east and south of
14 [18-24] Paul's first journey to
15  After three years: two years and more, since Paul's call. To confer with Cephas may mean simply ＂pay a visit＂ or more specifically ＂get information from＂ him about Jesus, over a two-week period. Cephas: Aramaic name of Simon (Peter); cf Matthew 16:16-18 and the notes there.
16  James the brother of the Lord: not one of the Twelve, but a brother of Jesus (see the note on Mark 6:3). He played an important role in the