2 while keeping our eyes fixed on Jesus, the leader and perfecter of faith. For the sake of the joy that lay before him he endured the cross, despising its shame, and has taken his seat at the right of the throne of God.
5 You have also forgotten the exhortation addressed to you as sons: ＂My son, do not disdain the discipline of the Lord or lose heart when reproved by him;
10 They disciplined us for a short time as seemed right to them, but he does so for our benefit, in order that we may share his holiness.
14 Strive for peace with everyone, and for that holiness without which no one will see the Lord.
15 3 See to it that no one be deprived of the grace of God, that no bitter root spring up and cause trouble, through which many may become defiled,
21 Indeed, so fearful was the spectacle that Moses said, ＂I am terrified and trembling.＂
23 and the assembly of the firstborn enrolled in heaven, 6 and God the judge of all, and the spirits of the just made perfect,
24 and Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and the sprinkled blood that speaks more eloquently 7 than that of Abel.
25 See that you do not reject the one who speaks. For if they did not escape when they refused the one who warned them on earth, how much more in our case if we turn away from the one who warns from heaven.
1 [1-13] Christian life is to be inspired not only by the Old Testament men and women of faith (Hebrews 12:1) but above all by Jesus. As the architect of Christian faith, he had himself to endure the cross before receiving the glory of his triumph (Hebrews 12:2). Reflection on his sufferings should give his followers courage to continue the struggle, if necessary even to the shedding of blood (Hebrews 12:3-4). Christians should regard their own sufferings as the affectionate correction of the Lord, who loves them as a father loves his children.
2  That clings to us: the meaning is uncertain, since the Greek word euperistatos, translated cling, occurs only here. The papyrus P46 and one minuscule read euperispastos, ＂easily distracting,＂ which also makes good sense.
3 [15-17] Esau serves as an example in two ways: his profane attitude illustrates the danger of apostasy, and his inability to secure a blessing afterward illustrates the impossibility of repenting after falling away (see Hebrews 6:4-6).
4 [18-29] As a final appeal for adherence to Christian teaching, the two covenants, of Moses and of Christ, are compared. The Mosaic covenant, the author argues, is shown to have originated in fear of God and threats of divine punishment (Hebrews 12:18-21). The covenant in Christ gives us direct access to God (Hebrews 12:22), makes us members of the Christian community, God's children, a sanctified people (Hebrews 12:23), who have Jesus as mediator to speak for us (Hebrews 12:24). Not to heed the voice of the risen Christ is a graver sin than the rejection of the word of Moses (Hebrews 12:25-26). Though Christians fall away, God's kingdom in Christ will remain and his justice will punish those guilty of deserting it (Hebrews 12:28-29).
5  This remarkably beautiful passage contrasts two great assemblies of people: that of the Israelites gathered at Mount Sinai for the sealing of the old covenant and the promulgation of the Mosaic law, and that of the followers of Jesus gathered at Mount Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem, the assembly of the new covenant. This latter scene, marked by the presence of countless angels and of Jesus with his redeeming blood, is reminiscent of the celestial liturgies of the Book of Revelation.
6  The assembly of the firstborn enrolled in heaven: this expression may refer to the angels of Hebrews 12:22, or to the heroes of the Old Testament (see Hebrews 11), or to the entire assembly of the new covenant.
7  Speaks more eloquently: the blood of Abel, the first human blood to be shed, is contrasted with that of Jesus. Abel's blood cried out from the earth for vengeance, but the blood of Jesus has opened the way for everyone, providing cleansing and access to God (Hebrews 10:19).