3 Going out about nine o'clock, he saw others standing idle in the marketplace,
5 So they went off. (And) he went out again around noon, and around three o'clock, and did likewise.
6 Going out about five o'clock, he found others standing around, and said to them, 'Why do you stand here idle all day?'
7 They answered, 'Because no one has hired us.' He said to them, 'You too go into my vineyard.'
9 When those who had started about five o'clock came, each received the usual daily wage.
10 So when the first came, they thought that they would receive more, but each of them also got the usual wage.
11 And on receiving it they grumbled against the landowner,
12 saying, ‘hese last ones worked only one hour, and you have made them equal to us, who bore the day's burden and the heat.'
15 (Or) am I not free to do as I wish with my own money? Are you envious because I am generous?'
18 ＂Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be handed over to the chief priests and the scribes, and they will condemn him to death,
21 He said to her, ＂What do you wish?＂ She answered him, ＂Command that these two sons of mine sit, one at your right and the other at your left, in your kingdom.＂
23 He replied, ＂My cup you will indeed drink, but to sit at my right and at my left (, this) is not mine to give but is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father.＂
24 When the ten heard this, they became indignant at the two brothers.
25 But Jesus summoned them and said, ＂You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and the great ones make their authority over them felt.
26 But it shall not be so among you. Rather, whoever wishes to be great among you shall be your servant;
27 whoever wishes to be first among you shall be your slave.
31 The crowd warned them to be silent, but they called out all the more, ＂Lord, Son of David, have pity on us!＂
32 Jesus stopped and called them and said, ＂What do you want me to do for you?＂
33 They answered him, ＂Lord, let our eyes be opened.＂
34 Moved with pity, Jesus touched their eyes. Immediately they received their sight, and followed him.
1 [1-16] This parable is peculiar to Matthew. It is difficult to know whether the evangelist composed it or received it as part of his traditional material and, if the latter is the case, what its original reference was. In its present context its close association with Matthew 19:30 suggests that its teaching is the equality of all the disciples in the reward of inheriting eternal life.
2  What is just: although the wage is not stipulated as in the case of those first hired, it will be fair.
4  I am not cheating you: literally, ＂I am not treating you unjustly.＂
5, , [14-15] The owner's conduct involves no violation of justice (Matthew 20:4, 13), and that all the workers receive the same wage is due only to his generosity to the latest arrivals; the resentment of the first comes from envy.
7 [17-19] Cf Mark 10:32-34. This is the third and the most detailed of the passion predictions (Matthew 16:21-23; 17:22-23). It speaks of Jesus' being ＂handed over to the Gentiles＂ (Matthew 27:2), his being ＂mocked＂ (Matthew 27:27-30), ＂scourged＂ (Matthew 27:26), and ＂crucified＂ (Matthew 27:31, 35). In all but the last of these points Matthew agrees with his Marcan source, but whereas Mark speaks of Jesus' being killed (Mark 10:34), Matthew has the specific ＂to be . . . crucified.＂
8 [20-28] Cf Mark 10:35-45. The request of the sons of Zebedee, made through their mother, for the highest places of honor in the kingdom, and the indignation of the other ten disciples at this request, show that neither the two brothers nor the others have understood that what makes for greatness in the kingdom is not lordly power but humble service. Jesus gives the example, and his ministry of service will reach its highest point when he gives his life for the deliverance of the human race from sin.
9 [20-21] The reason for Matthew's making the mother the petitioner (cf Mark 10:35) is not clear. Possibly he intends an allusion to Bathsheba's seeking the kingdom for Solomon; see 1 Kings 1:11-21. Your kingdom: see the note on Matthew 16:28.
10  You do not know what you are asking: the Greek verbs are plural and, with the rest of the verse, indicate that the answer is addressed not to the woman but to her sons. Drink the cup: see the note on Mark 10:38-40. Matthew omits the Marcan ＂or be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized＂ (Matthew 10:38).
11  Ransom: this noun, which occurs in the New Testament only here and in the Marcan parallel (Matthew 10:45), does not necessarily express the idea of liberation by payment of some price. The cognate verb is used frequently in the LXX of God's liberating Israel from Egypt or from Babylonia after the Exile; see Exodus 6:6; 15:13; Psalm 77:16 (76 LXX); Isaiah 43:1; 44:22. The liberation brought by Jesus' death will be for many; cf Isaiah 53:12. Many does not mean that some are excluded, but is a Semitism designating the collectivity who benefit from the service of the one, and is equivalent to ＂all.＂ While there are few verbal contacts between this saying and the fourth Servant Song (Isaiah 52:13-53:12), the ideas of that passage are reflected here.
12 [29-34] The cure of the blind men is probably symbolic of what will happen to the disciples, now blind to the meaning of Jesus' passion and to the necessity of their sharing his suffering. As the men are given sight, so, after the resurrection, will the disciples come to see that to which they are now blind. Matthew has abbreviated his Marcan source (Matthew 10:46-52) and has made Mark's one man two. Such doubling is characteristic of this gospel; see Matthew 8:28-34 (Mark 5:1-20) and the note on Matthew 9:27-31.