6 You have condemned; you have murdered the righteous one; he offers you no resistance. 2
7 3 Be patient, therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. See how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient with it until it receives the early and the late rains. 4
12 But above all, my brothers, do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or with any other oath, but let your ＂Yes＂ mean ＂Yes＂ and your ＂No＂ mean ＂No,＂ that you may not incur condemnation. 5
13 Is anyone among you suffering? He should pray. Is anyone in good spirits? He should sing praise.
14 Is anyone among you sick? 6 He should summon the presbyters of the church, and they should pray over him and anoint (him) with oil in the name of the Lord,
15 and the prayer of faith will save the sick person, and the Lord will raise him up. If he has committed any sins, he will be forgiven. 7
19 My brothers, if anyone among you should stray from the truth and someone bring him back,
20 he should know that whoever brings back a sinner from the error of his way will save his soul from death and will cover a multitude of sins. 8
1 [1-6] Continuing with the theme of the transitory character of life on earth, the author points out the impending ruin of the godless. He denounces the unjust rich, whose victims cry to heaven for judgment on their exploiters (James 5:4-6). The decay and corrosion of the costly garments and metals, which symbolize wealth, prove them worthless and portend the destruction of their possessors (James 5:2-3).
2  The author does not have in mind any specific crime in his readers' communities but rather echoes the Old Testament theme of the harsh oppression of the righteous poor (see Proverb 1:11; Wisdom 2:10, 12, 20).
3 [7-11] Those oppressed by the unjust rich are reminded of the need for patience, both in bearing the sufferings of human life (James 5:9) and in their expectation of the coming of the Lord. It is then that they will receive their reward (James 5:7-8, 10-11; cf Hebrews 10:25; 1 John 2:18).
5  This is the threat of condemnation for the abuse of swearing oaths (cf Matthew 5:33-37). By heaven or by earth: these words were substitutes for the original form of an oath, to circumvent its binding force and to avoid pronouncing the holy name of God (see Exodus 22:10).
6  In case of sickness a Christian should ask for the presbyters of the church, i.e., those who have authority in the church (cf Acts 15:2, 22-23; 1 Tim 5:17; Titus 1:5). They are to pray over the person and anoint with oil; oil was used for medicinal purposes in the ancient world (see Isaiah 1:6; Luke 10:34). In Mark 6:13, the Twelve anoint the sick with oil on their missionary journey. In the name of the Lord: by the power of Jesus Christ.
7  The results of the prayer and anointing are physical health and forgiveness of sins. The Roman Catholic Church (Council of Trent, Session 14) declared that this anointing of the sick is a sacrament ＂instituted by Christ and promulgated by blessed James the apostle.＂
8  When a Christian is instrumental in the conversion of a sinner, the result is forgiveness of sins and a reinstatement of the sinner to the life of grace.