5 Jesus sent out these twelve 4 after instructing them thus, ＂Do not go into pagan territory or enter a Samaritan town.
8 5 Cure the sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, drive out demons. Without cost you have received; without cost you are to give.
14 7 Whoever will not receive you or listen to your words--go outside that house or town and shake the dust from your feet.
17 8 But beware of people, for they will hand you over to courts and scourge you in their synagogues,
21 9 Brother will hand over brother to death, and the father his child; children will rise up against parents and have them put to death.
22 You will be hated by all because of my name, but whoever endures to the end 10 will be saved.
23 When they persecute you in one town, flee to another. Amen, I say to you, you will not finish the towns of
25 It is enough for the disciple that he become like his teacher, for the slave that he become like his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, 12 how much more those of his household!
26 ＂Therefore do not be afraid of them. Nothing is concealed that will not be revealed, nor secret that will not be known. 13
32 14 Everyone who acknowledges me before others I will acknowledge before my heavenly Father.
39 16 Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it.
40 ＂Whoever receives you receives me, 17 and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.
41 18 Whoever receives a prophet because he is a prophet will receive a prophet's reward, and whoever receives a righteous man because he is righteous will receive a righteous man's reward.
1 [10:1-11:1] After an introductory narrative (Matthew 10:1-4), the second of the discourses of the gospel. It deals with the mission now to be undertaken by the disciples (Matthew 10:5-15), but the perspective broadens and includes the missionary activity of the church between the time of the resurrection and the parousia. 2 His twelve disciples: although, unlike Mark (Mark 3:13-14) and Luke (Luke 6:12-16), Matthew has no story of Jesus' choosing the Twelve, he assumes that the group is known to the reader. The earliest New Testament text to speak of it is 1 Cor 15:5. The number probably is meant to recall the twelve tribes of
3 [2-4] Here, for the only time in Matthew, the Twelve are designated apostles. The word ＂apostle＂ means ＂one who is sent,＂ and therefore fits the situation here described. In the Pauline letters, the place where the term occurs most frequently in the New Testament, it means primarily one who has seen the risen Lord and has been commissioned to proclaim the resurrection. With slight variants in Luke and Acts, the names of those who belong to this group are the same in the four lists given in the New Testament (see the note on Matthew 9:9). Cananean: this represents an Aramaic word meaning ＂zealot.＂ The meaning of that designation is unclear (see the note on Luke 6:15).
4 [5-6] Like Jesus (Matthew 15:24), the Twelve are sent only to
5 [8-11] The Twelve have received their own call and mission through God's gift, and the benefits they confer are likewise to be given freely. They are not to take with them money, provisions, or unnecessary clothing; their lodging and food will be provided by those who receive them.
6  The greeting of peace is conceived of not merely as a salutation but as an effective word. If it finds no worthy recipient, it will return to the speaker.
7  Shake the dust from your feet: this gesture indicates a complete disassociation from such unbelievers.
8  The persecutions attendant upon the post-resurrection mission now begin to be spoken of. Here Matthew brings into the discourse sayings found in Mark 13 which deals with events preceding the parousia.
10  To the end: the original meaning was probably ＂until the parousia.＂ But it is not likely that Matthew expected no missionary disciples to suffer death before then, since he envisages the martyrdom of other Christians (Matthew 10:21). For him, the end is probably that of the individual's life (see Matthew 10:28).
11  Before the Son of Man comes: since the coming of the Son of Man at the end of the age had not taken place when this gospel was written, much less during the mission of the Twelve during Jesus' ministry, Matthew cannot have meant the coming to refer to the parousia. It is difficult to know what he understood it to be: perhaps the ＂proleptic parousia＂ of Matthew 28:16-20, or the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70, viewed as a coming of Jesus in judgment on unbelieving Israel.
12  Beelzebul: see Matthew 9:34 for the charge linking Jesus with ＂the prince of demons,＂ who is named Beelzebul in Matthew 12:24. The meaning of the name is uncertain; possibly, ＂lord of the house.＂
13  The concealed and secret coming of the kingdom is to be proclaimed by them, and no fear must be allowed to deter them from that proclamation.
14 [32-33] In the Q parallel (Luke 12:8-9), the Son of Man will acknowledge those who have acknowledged Jesus, and those who deny him will be denied (by the Son of Man) before the angels of God at the judgment. Here Jesus and the Son of Man are identified, and the acknowledgment or denial will be before his heavenly Father.
15  The first mention of the cross in Matthew, explicitly that of the disciple, but implicitly that of Jesus (and follow after me). Crucifixion was a form of capital punishment used by the Romans for offenders who were not Roman citizens.
16  One who denies Jesus in order to save one's earthly life will be condemned to everlasting destruction; loss of earthly life for Jesus' sake will be rewarded by everlasting life in the kingdom.
17 [40-42] All who receive the disciples of Jesus receive him, and God who sent him, and will be rewarded accordingly.
18  A prophet: one who speaks in the name of God; here, the Christian prophets who proclaim the gospel. Righteous man: since righteousness is demanded of all the disciples, it is difficult to take the righteous man of this verse and one of these little ones (Matthew 10:42) as indicating different groups within the followers of Jesus. Probably all three designations are used here of Christian missionaries as such.