4 So about the eating of meat sacrificed to idols: we know that ＂there is no idol in the world,＂ and that ＂there is no God but one.＂
6 3 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom all things are and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things are and through whom we exist.
7 But not all have this knowledge. There are some who have been so used to idolatry up until now that, when they eat meat sacrificed to idols, their conscience, which is weak, is defiled.
8 4 Now food will not bring us closer to God. We are no worse off if we do not eat, nor are we better off if we do.
13 5 Therefore, if food causes my brother to sin, I will never eat meat again, so that I may not cause my brother to sin.
1 [8:1-11:1] The Corinthians' second question concerns meat that has been sacrificed to idols; in this area they were exhibiting a disordered sense of liberation that Paul here tries to rectify. These chapters contain a sustained and unified argument that illustrates Paul's method of theological reflection on a moral dilemma. Although the problem with which he is dealing is dated, the guidelines for moral decisions that he offers are of lasting validity. Essentially Paul urges them to take a communitarian rather than an individualistic view of their Christian freedom. Many decisions that they consider pertinent only to their private relationship with God have, in fact, social consequences. Nor can moral decisions be determined by merely theoretical considerations; they must be based on concrete circumstances, specifically on the value and needs of other individuals and on mutual responsibility within the community. Paul here introduces the theme of ＂building up＂ (oikodome), i.e., of contributing by individual action to the welfare and growth of the community. This theme will be further developed in 1 Cor 14; see the note on 1 Cor 14:3b-5. Several years later Paul would again deal with the problem of meat sacrificed to idols in Romans 14:1-15:6.
2 [1a] Meat sacrificed to idols: much of the food consumed in the city could have passed through pagan religious ceremonies before finding its way into markets and homes. ＂All of us have knowledge＂: a slogan, similar to 1 Cor 6:12, which reveals the self-image of the Corinthians. 1 Cor 8:4 will specify the content of this knowledge.
3  This verse rephrases the monotheistic confession of v 4 in such a way as to contrast it with polytheism (1 Cor 8:5) and to express our relationship with the one God in concrete, i.e., in personal and Christian terms. And for whom we exist: since the Greek contains no verb here and the action intended must be inferred from the preposition eis, another translation is equally possible: ＂toward whom we return.＂ Through whom all things: the earliest reference in the New Testament to Jesus' role in creation.
4 [8-9] Although the food in itself is morally neutral, extrinsic circumstances may make the eating of it harmful. A stumbling block: the image is that of tripping or causing someone to fall (cf 1 Cor 8:13; 9:12; 10:12, 32; 2 Cor 6:3; Romans 14:13, 20-1). This is a basic moral imperative for Paul, a counterpart to the positive imperative to ＂build one another up＂; compare the expression ＂giving offense＂ as opposed to ＂pleasing＂ in 1 Cor 10:32-33.
5  His own course is clear: he will avoid any action that might harm another Christian. This statement prepares for the paradigmatic development in 1 Cor 9.