2 Consider it all joy, my brothers, when you encounter various trials, 2
3 for you know that the testing 3 of your faith produces perseverance.
5 But if any of you lacks wisdom, 4 he should ask God who gives to all generously and ungrudgingly, and he will be given it.
9 The brother in lowly circumstances 5 should take pride in his high standing,
10 and the rich one in his lowliness, for he will pass away ＂like the flower of the field.＂
12 Blessed is the man who perseveres in temptation, 6 for when he has been proved he will receive the crown of life that he promised to those who love him.
13 7 No one experiencing temptation should say, ＂I am being tempted by God＂; for God is not subject to temptation to evil, and he himself tempts no one.
17 all good giving and every perfect gift 9 is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no alteration or shadow caused by change.
18 He willed to give us birth by the word of truth that we may be a kind of firstfruits of his creatures. 10
19 Know this, my dear brothers: everyone should be quick to hear, 11 slow to speak, slow to wrath,
22 Be doers of the word and not hearers only, deluding yourselves.
25 But the one who peers into the perfect law 12 of freedom and perseveres, and is not a hearer who forgets but a doer who acts, such a one shall be blessed in what he does.
27 Religion that is pure and undefiled before God and the Father is this: to care for orphans and widows 15 in their affliction and to keep oneself unstained by the world.
1  James, a slave of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ: a declaration of the writer's authority for instructing the Christian communities; cf Romans 1:1. Regarding the identity of the author, see Introduction. Dispersion: see Introduction.
3 [3-8] The sequence of testing, perseverance, and being perfect and complete indicates the manner of attaining spiritual maturity and full preparedness for the coming of Christ (James 5:7-12; cf 1 Peter 1:6-7; Romans 5:3-5). These steps require wisdom (James 1:5).
4  Wisdom: a gift that God readily grants to all who ask in faith and that sustains the Christian in times of trial. It is a kind of knowledge or understanding not accessible to the unbeliever or those who doubt, which gives the recipient an understanding of the real importance of events. In this way a Christian can deal with adversity with great calm and hope (cf 1 Cor 2:6-12).
5 [9-11] Throughout his letter (see James 2:5; 4:10, 13-16; 5:1-6), the author reaffirms the teaching of Jesus that worldly prosperity is not necessarily a sign of God's favor but can even be a hindrance to proper humility before God (cf Luke 6:20-25; 12:16-21; 16:19-31).
6  Temptation: the Greek word used here is the same one used for ＂trials＂ in James 1:2. The crown of life: in ancient
7 [13-15] It is contrary to what we know of God for God to be the author of human temptation (James 1:13). In the commission of a sinful act, one is first beguiled by passion (James 1:14), then consent is given, which in turn causes the sinful act. When sin permeates the entire person, it incurs the ultimate penalty of death (James 1:15).
8 [16-18] The author here stresses that God is the source of all good and of good alone, and the evil of temptation does not come from him.
9  All good giving and every perfect gift may be a proverb written in hexameter. Father of lights: God is here called the Father of the heavenly luminaries, i.e., the stars, sun, and moon that he created (Genesis 1:14-18). Unlike orbs moving from nadir to zenith, he never changes or diminishes in brightness.
10  Acceptance of the gospel message, the word of truth, constitutes new birth (John 3:5-6) and makes the recipient the firstfruits (i.e., the cultic offering of the earliest grains, symbolizing the beginning of an abundant harvest) of a new creation; cf 1 Cor 15:20; Romans 8:23.
11 [19-25] To be quick to hear the gospel is to accept it readily and to act in conformity with it, removing from one's soul whatever is opposed to it, so that it may take root and effect salvation (James 1:19-21). To listen to the gospel message but not practice it is failure to improve oneself (James 1:22-24). Only conformity of life to the perfect law of true freedom brings happiness (James 1:25).
12  Peers into the perfect law: the image of a person doing this is paralleled to that of hearing God's word. The perfect law applies the Old Testament description of the Mosaic law to the gospel of Jesus Christ that brings freedom.
15  In the Old Testament, orphans and widows are classical examples of the defenseless and oppressed.