小德兰爱心书屋  
 
小德兰爱心书屋
 
天主教中英对照(新约)列表
·Matthew Chapter 1(玛窦福音)
·Matthew Chapter 2
·Matthew Chapter 3
·Matthew Chapter 4
·Matthew Chapter 5
·Matthew Chapter 6
·Matthew Chapter 7
·Matthew Chapter 8
·Matthew Chapter 9
·Matthew Chapter 10
·Matthew Chapter 11
·Matthew Chapter 12
·Matthew Chapter 13
·Matthew Chapter 14
·Matthew Chapter 15
·Matthew Chapter 16
·Matthew Chapter 17
·Matthew Chapter 18
·Matthew Chapter 19
·Matthew Chapter 20
·Matthew Chapter 21
·Matthew Chapter 22
·Matthew Chapter 23
·Matthew Chapter 24
·Matthew Chapter 25
·Matthew Chapter 26
·Matthew Chapter 27
·Mark Chapter 1(玛尔谷福音)
·Mark Chapter 2
·Mark Chapter 3
·Mark Chapter 4
·Mark Chapter 5
·Mark Chapter 6
·Mark Chapter 7
·Mark Chapter 8
·Mark Chapter 9
·Mark Chapter 10
·Mark Chapter 11
·Mark Chapter 12
·Mark Chapter 13
·Mark Chapter 14
·Mark Chapter 15
·Mark Chapter 16
·Luke Chapter 1(路加福音)
·Luke Chapter 2
·Luke Chapter 3
·Luke Chapter 4
·Luke Chapter 5
·Luke Chapter 6
·Luke Chapter 7
·Luke Chapter 8
·Luke Chapter 9
·Luke Chapter 10
·Luke Chapter 11
·Luke Chapter 12
·Luke Chapter 13
·Luke Chapter 14
·Luke Chapter 15
·Luke Chapter 16
·Luke Chapter 17
·Luke Chapter 18
·Luke Chapter 19
·Luke Chapter 20
·Luke Chapter 21
·Luke Chapter 22
·Luke Chapter 23
·Luke Chapter 24
·John Chapter 1(若望福音)
·John Chapter 2
·John Chapter 3
·John Chapter 4
·John Chapter 5
·John Chapter 6
·John Chapter 7
·John Chapter 8
·John Chapter 9
·John Chapter 10
·John Chapter 11
·John Chapter 12
·John Chapter 13
·John Chapter 14
·John Chapter 15
·John Chapter 16
·John Chapter 17
·John Chapter 18
·John Chapter 19
·John Chapter 20
·John Chapter 21
·Acts Chapter 1(宗徒大事录)
·Acts Chapter 2
·Acts Chapter 3
·Acts Chapter 4
·Acts Chapter 5
·Acts Chapter 6
·Acts Chapter 7
·Acts Chapter 8
·Acts Chapter 9
·Acts Chapter 10
·Acts Chapter 11
·Acts Chapter 12
·Acts Chapter 13
·Acts Chapter 14
·Acts Chapter 15
·Acts Chapter 16
·Acts Chapter 17
·Acts Chapter 18
·Acts Chapter 19
·Acts Chapter 20
·Acts Chapter 21
·Acts Chapter 22
·Acts Chapter 23
·Acts Chapter 24
·Acts Chapter 25
·Acts Chapter 26
·Acts Chapter 27
·Acts Chapter 28
·Romans Chapter 1(罗马人书)
·Romans Chapter 2
·Romans Chapter 3
·Romans Chapter 4
·Romans Chapter 5
·Romans Chapter 6
·Romans Chapter 7
·Romans Chapter 8
·Romans Chapter 9
·Romans Chapter 10
·Romans Chapter 11
·Romans Chapter 12
·Romans Chapter 13
·Romans Chapter 14
·Romans Chapter 15
·Romans Chapter 16
·1 Corinthians Chapter 1[格前]
·1 Corinthians Chapter 2
·1 Corinthians Chapter 3
·1 Corinthians Chapter 4
·1 Corinthians Chapter 5
·1 Corinthians Chapter 6
·1 Corinthians Chapter 7
·1 Corinthians Chapter 8
·1 Corinthians Chapter 9
·1 Corinthians Chapter 10
·1 Corinthians Chapter 11
·1 Corinthians Chapter 12
·1 Corinthians Chapter 13
·1 Corinthians Chapter 14
·1 Corinthians Chapter 15
·1 Corinthians Chapter 16
·2 Corinthians Chapter 1[格后]
·2 Corinthians Chapter 2
·2 Corinthians Chapter 3
·2 Corinthians Chapter 4
·2 Corinthians Chapter 5
·2 Corinthians Chapter 6
·2 Corinthians Chapter 7
·2 Corinthians Chapter 8
·2 Corinthians Chapter 9
·2 Corinthians Chapter 10
·2 Corinthians Chapter 11
·2 Corinthians Chapter 12
·2 Corinthians Chapter 13
·Galatians Chapter 1迦拉达书
·Galatians Chapter 2
·Galatians Chapter 3
·Galatians Chapter 4
·Galatians Chapter 5
·Galatians Chapter 6
·Ephesians Chapter 1厄弗所书
·Ephesians Chapter 2
·Ephesians Chapter 3
·Ephesians Chapter 4
·Ephesians Chapter 5
·Ephesians Chapter 6
·Philippians Chapter 1斐理伯书
·Philippians Chapter 2
·Philippians Chapter 3
·Philippians Chapter 4
·Colossians Chapter 1哥罗森书
·Colossians Chapter 2
·Colossians Chapter 3
·Colossians Chapter 4
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 1[得前
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 2
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 3
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 4
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 5
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 1[得后
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 2
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 3
·1 Timothy Chapter 1弟茂德前书
·1 Timothy Chapter 2
·1 Timothy Chapter 3
·1 Timothy Chapter 4
·1 Timothy Chapter 5
·1 Timothy Chapter 6
·2 Timothy Chapter 1弟茂德后书
·2 Timothy Chapter 2
·2 Timothy Chapter 3
·2 Timothy Chapter 4
·Titus Chapter 1弟铎书
·Titus Chapter 2
·Titus Chapter 3
·Philemon 费肋孟书
·Hebrews Chapter 1希伯来书
·Hebrews Chapter 2
·Hebrews Chapter 3
·Hebrews Chapter 4
·Hebrews Chapter 5
·Hebrews Chapter 6
·Hebrews Chapter 7
·Hebrews Chapter 8
·Hebrews Chapter 9
·Hebrews Chapter 10
·Hebrews Chapter 11
·Hebrews Chapter 12
·Hebrews Chapter 13
·James Chapter 1雅各伯书
·James Chapter 2
·James Chapter 3
·James Chapter 4
·James Chapter 5
·Matthew Chapter 28
·1 Peter Chapter 1伯多禄前书
·1 Peter Chapter 2
·1 Peter Chapter 3
·1 Peter Chapter 4
·1 Peter Chapter 5
·2 Peter Chapter 1伯多禄后书
·2 Peter Chapter 2
·2 Peter Chapter 3
·1 John Chapter 1若望一书
·1 John Chapter 2
·1 John Chapter 3
·1 John Chapter 4
·1 John Chapter 5
·2 John 若望二书
·3 John 若望三书
·Jude 犹达书
·Revelation Chapter 1若望默示录
·Revelation Chapter 2
·Revelation Chapter 3
·Revelation Chapter 4
·Revelation Chapter 5
·Revelation Chapter 6
·Revelation Chapter 7
·Revelation Chapter 8
·Revelation Chapter 9
·Revelation Chapter 10
·Revelation Chapter 11
·Revelation Chapter 12
·Revelation Chapter 13
·Revelation Chapter 14
·Revelation Chapter 15
·Revelation Chapter 16
·Revelation Chapter 17
·Revelation Chapter 18
·Revelation Chapter 19
·Revelation Chapter 20
·Revelation Chapter 21
·Revelation Chapter 22
「我的民因无知识而灭亡。你弃掉知识,我也必弃掉你,使你不再给我作祭司。」
Matthew Chapter 21
Matthew Chapter 21
浏览次数:2283 更新时间:2009-6-7
 
 
 

Matthew
Chapter 21

1 1 When they drew near Jerusalem and came to Bethphage 2 on the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples,

当他们临近耶路撒冷,来到靠近橄榄山的贝特法革时,耶稣就打发两个门徒,

2 saying to them,Go into the village opposite you, and immediately you will find an ass tethered, and a colt with her. 3 Untie them and bring them here to me.

对他们说:你们往对面的村庄里去,立时会看见一匹栓着的母驴,和跟它在一起的驴驹。解开,给我牵来!

3 And if anyone should say anything to you, reply, The master has need of them.Then he will send them at once."

4 4 This happened so that what had been spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled:

5Say to daughter Zion,Behold, your king comes to you, meek and riding on an ass, and on a colt, the foal of a beast of burden.'"

你们应向熙雍女子说:看,你的君王来到你这里,温和的骑在一匹驴上,一匹母驴的小驴驹上。

6 The disciples went and did as Jesus had ordered them.

门徒就去,照耶稣吩咐他们的做了。

7 5 They brought the ass and the colt and laid their cloaks over them, and he sat upon them.

他们牵了母驴和驴驹来,把外衣搭在它们的身上,扶耶稣坐在上面。

8 6 The very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, while others cut branches from the trees and strewed them on the road.

很多群众,把自己的外衣铺在路上,还有些人从树上砍下树枝来,撒在路上。

9 The crowds preceding him and those following kept crying out and saying:Hosanna 7 to the Son of David; blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord; hosanna in the highest."

前行后随的群众喊说:贺三纳于达味之子!因上主之名而来的,当受赞颂!贺三纳于至高之天!

10 And when he entered Jerusalem the whole city was shaken 8 and asked,Who is this?"

当耶稣进入耶路撒冷的时候,全城哄动,说:这人是谁?”

11 And the crowds replied,This is Jesus the prophet, 9 from Nazareth in Galilee."

群众说:这是加里肋亚纳匝肋的先知耶稣。

12 10 11 Jesus entered the temple area and drove out all those engaged in selling and buying there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who were selling doves.

耶稣进了圣殿,把一切在圣殿内的商人顾客赶出去,把钱庄的桌子和卖鸽子的凳子推翻,

13 And he said to them,It is written: My house shall be a house of prayer,' 12 but you are making it a den of thieves."

向他们说:经上记载:我的殿宇,应称为祈祷之所。你们竟把它做成了贼窝。

14 The blind and the lame 13 approached him in the temple area, and he cured them.

在圣殿内的瞎子和瘸子来到他跟前,他都治好了他们。

15 When the chief priests and the scribes saw the wondrous things 14 he was doing, and the children crying out in the temple area,Hosanna to the Son of David," they were indignant

司祭长及经师见了他所行的奇事,又听见了孩子们在圣殿内喊说:贺三纳于达味之子!就大发忿怒,

16 15 and said to him,Do you hear what they are saying?" Jesus said to them,Yes; and have you never read the text, 'Out of the mouths of infants and nurslings you have brought forth praise'?"

对耶稣说:你听见他们所说的吗?耶稣对他们说:是的,你们从未读过:你由婴儿和吃奶者的口中,备受赞美这句话吗?”

17 And leaving them, he went out of the city to Bethany, and there he spent the night.

于是便离开他们走出城外,到伯达尼去,在那里过夜。

18 16 When he was going back to the city in the morning, he was hungry.

早晨,他回城时,饿了,

19 Seeing a fig tree by the road, he went over to it, but found nothing on it except leaves. And he said to it,May no fruit ever come from you again." And immediately the fig tree withered.

见路旁有棵无花果树,就走到跟前,但在树上除了叶子外,什么也没找着,就对它说:你永远不再结果子了!那无花果树立即枯干了。

20 When the disciples saw this, they were amazed and said,How was it that the fig tree withered immediately?"

门徒一见就惊异说:怎么这无花果树立即枯干了?

21 17 Jesus said to them in reply,Amen, I say to you, if you have faith and do not waver, not only will you do what has been done to the fig tree, but even if you say to this mountain, 'Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,' it will be done.

耶稣回答他们说:我实在告诉你们:你们如果有信德,不疑惑,不但能对无花果树做这件事,即便你们对这座山说:起来,投到海中!也必要实现。

22 Whatever you ask for in prayer with faith, you will receive."

不论你们在祈祷时恳求什么,只要信,就必获得。

23 18 When he had come into the temple area, the chief priests and the elders of the people approached him as he was teaching and said,By what authority are you doing these things? 19 And who gave you this authority?"

他进了圣殿,正教训人时,司祭长和民间的长老来到他跟前说:你凭什么权柄作这些事?谁给了你这种权柄?”

24 Jesus said to them in reply,I shall ask you one question, 20 and if you answer it for me, then I shall tell you by what authority I do these things.

耶稣回答说:我也问你们一句话:你们若答复我,我就告诉你们:我凭什么权柄作这些事。

 

25 Where was John's baptism from? Was it of heavenly or of human origin?" They discussed this among themselves and said,If we say Of heavenly origin,' he will say to us, 'Then why did you not believe him?'

若翰的洗礼,是从哪里来的?是从天上来的?还是从人来的?他们心中思量说:如果我们说:是从天上来的,他必对我们说:你们为什么不信他?

26 21 But if we say,Of human origin,' we fear the crowd, for they all regard John as a prophet."

如果我们说:是从人来的,我们害怕民众,因为众人都以若翰为一位先知。

27 So they said to Jesus in reply,We do not know." He himself said to them,Neither shall I tell you by what authority I do these things. 22

他们便回答耶稣说:我们不知道。耶稣也对他们说:我也不告诉你们:我凭什么权柄做这些事。

28 23What is your opinion? A man had two sons. He came to the first and said,Son, go out and work in the vineyard today.'

你们以为怎样?从前有一个人,有两个儿子,他对第一个说:孩子!你今天到葡萄园里去工作吧!

29 He said in reply, I will not,' but afterwards he changed his mind and went.

他回答说:主,我去。但他却没有去。

30 The man came to the other son and gave the same order. He said in reply,Yes, sir,' but did not go.

他对第二个也说了同样的话,第二个却答应说:我不愿意。但后来悔悟过来,而又去了。

31 24 Which of the two did his father's will?" They answered,The first." Jesus said to them,Amen, I say to you, tax collectors and prostitutes are entering the kingdom of God before you.

二人中哪一个履行了父亲的意愿?”他们说:后一个。耶稣对他们说:我实在告诉你们:税吏和娼妓要在你们以先进入天国,

32 25 When John came to you in the way of righteousness, you did not believe him; but tax collectors and prostitutes did. Yet even when you saw that, you did not later change your minds and believe him.

因为若翰来到你们这里履行了正义,你们仍不相信他。税吏和娼妓倒相信了;至于你们,见了后,仍不悔悟去相信他。

33 26Hear another parable. There was a landowner who planted a vineyard, 27 put a hedge around it, dug a wine press in it, and built a tower. Then he leased it to tenants and went on a journey.

 你们再听一个比喻吧!从前有一个家主,培植了一个葡萄园,周围围上篱笆,园内掘了一个榨酒池,筑了一个守望台,把它租给园户,就离开了本国。

34 When vintage time drew near, he sent his servants 28 to the tenants to obtain his produce.

快到收果子的时节,他打发仆人到园户那里去收果子。

35 But the tenants seized the servants and one they beat, another they killed, and a third they stoned.

园户拿住了仆人,将一个鞭打了,将一个杀了,将另一个用石头砸死了。

36 Again he sent other servants, more numerous than the first ones, but they treated them in the same way.

他再打发一些仆人去,人数比以前还多;园户也一样对待了他们,

37 Finally, he sent his son to them, thinking,They will respect my son.'

最后他打发自己的儿子到他们那去,说:他们会敬重我的儿子。

38 29 But when the tenants saw the son, they said to one another, 'This is the heir. Come, let us kill him and acquire his inheritance.'

但园户一看见是儿子,就彼此说:这是继承人;来!我们杀掉他,我们就能得到他的产业。

39 30 They seized him, threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.

于是他们拿住他,把他推到园外杀了。

40 What will the owner of the vineyard do to those tenants when he comes?"

那么,当葡萄园的主人来时,他要怎样处置那些园户呢?”

41 They answered 31 him,He will put those wretched men to a wretched death and lease his vineyard to other tenants who will give him the produce at the proper times."

他们回答说:要凶恶地消灭那些凶恶的人,把葡萄园另租给按时给他缴纳出产的园户。

42 32 Jesus said to them,Did you never read in the scriptures: 'The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; by the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes'?

耶稣对他们说:匠人弃而不用的石头,反而成了屋角的基石;那是上主的所行所为,在我们眼中,神妙莫测的这句经文,你们没有读过吗?

43 33 Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people that will produce its fruit.

为此,我对你们说:天主的国,必由你们中夺去,而交给结果子的外邦人。

44 ( 34 The one who falls on this stone will be dashed to pieces; and it will crush anyone on whom it falls.)"

跌在这石头上的,必被撞碎;这石头落在谁身上,必要把他压踤。

45 When the chief priests and the Pharisees 35 heard his parables, they knew that he was speaking about them.

司祭长和法利塞人听了他的这些比喻,觉出他是指着他们说的,

46 And although they were attempting to arrest him, they feared the crowds, for they regarded him as a prophet.

就想逮住他;但害怕民众,因为他们以耶稣为一位先知。

 

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Footnotes(注解)

1 [1-11] Jesus' coming to Jerusalem is in accordance with the divine will that he must go there (cf Matthew 16:21) to suffer, die, and be raised. He prepares for his entry into the city in such a way as to make it a fulfillment of the prophecy of Zechariah 9:9 (Matthew 21:2) that emphasizes the humility of the king who comes (Matthew 21:5). That prophecy, absent from the Marcan parallel account (Matthew 11:1-11) although found also in the Johannine account of the entry (Matthew 12:15), is the center of the Matthean story. During the procession from Bethphage to Jerusalem, Jesus is acclaimed as the Davidic messianic king by the crowds who accompany him (Matthew 21:9). On his arrival the whole city was shaken, and to the inquiry of the amazed populace about Jesus' identity the crowds with him reply that he is the prophet, from Nazareth in Galilee (Matthew 21:10, 11).

2 [1] Bethphage: a village that can no longer be certainly identified. Mark mentions it before Bethany (Mark 11:1), which suggests that it lay to the east of the latter. The Mount of Olives: the hill east of Jerusalem that is spoken of in Zechariah 14:4 as the place where the Lord will come to rescue Jerusalem from the enemy nations.

3 [2] An ass tethered, and a colt with her: instead of the one animal of Mark 11:2 Matthew has two, as demanded by his understanding of Zechariah 9:9.

4 [4-5] The prophet: this fulfillment citation is actually composed of two distinct Old Testament texts, Isaiah 62:11 (Say to daughter Zion) and Zechariah 9:9. The ass and the colt are the same animal in the prophecy, mentioned twice in different ways, the common Hebrew literary device of poetic parallelism. That Matthew takes them as two is one of the reasons why some scholars think that he was a Ge, nt, ile rather than a Jewish Christian who would presumably not make that mistake (see Introduction).

5 [7] Upon them: upon the two animals; an awkward picture resulting from Matthew's misunderstanding of the prophecy.

6 [8] Spread . . . on the road: cf 2 Kings 9:13. There is a similarity between the cutting and strewing of the branches and the festivities of Tabernacles (Lev 23:39-40); see also 2 Macc 10:5-8 where the celebration of the rededication of the temple is compared to that of Tabernacles.

7 [9] Hosanna: the Hebrew means(O Lord) grant salvation"; see Psalm 118:25, but that invocation had become an acclamation of jubilation and welcome. Blessed is he . . . in the name of the Lord: see Psalm 118:26 and the note on John 12:13. In the highest: probably only an intensification of the acclamation, although Hosanna in the highest could be taken as a prayer,May God save (him)."

8 [10] Was shaken: in the gospels this verb is peculiar to Matthew where it is used also of the earthquake at the time of the crucifixion (Matthew 27:51) and of the terror of the guards of Jesus' tomb at the appearance of the angel (Matthew 28:4). For Matthew's use of the cognate noun, see the note on Matthew 8:24.

9 [11] The prophet: see Matthew 16:14 ("one of the prophets") and 21:46.

10 [12-17] Matthew changes the order of (Mark 11:11, 12, 15) and places the cleansing of the temple on the same day as the entry into Jerusalem, immediately after it. The activities going on in the temple area were not secular but connected with the temple worship. Thus Jesus' attack on those so engaged and his charge that they were making God's house of prayer a den of thieves (Matthew 21:12-13) constituted a claim to authority over the religious practices of Israel and were a challenge to the priestly authorities. Matthew 21:14-17 are peculiar to Matthew. Jesus' healings and his countenancing the children's cries of praise rouse the indignation of the chief priests and the scribes (Matthew 21:15). These two groups appear in the infancy narrative (Matthew 2:4) and have been mentioned in the first and third passion predictions (Matthew 16:21; 20:18). Now, as the passion approaches, they come on the scene again, exhibiting their hostility to Jesus.

11 [12] These activities were carried on in the court of the Gentiles, the outermost court of the temple area. Animals for sacrifice were sold; the doves were for those who could not afford a more expensive offering; see Lev 5:7. Tables of the money changers: only the coinage of Tyre could be used for the purchases; other money had to be exchanged for that.

12 [13]My house . . . prayer': cf Isaiah 56:7. Matthew omits the final words of the quotation,for all peoples" ("all nations"), possibly because for him the worship of the God of Israel by all nations belongs to the time after the resurrection; see Matthew 28:19. A den of thieves: the phrase is taken from Jeremiah 7:11.

13 [14] The blind and the lame: according to 2 Sam 5:8 (LXX) the blind and the lame were forbidden to enterthe house of the Lord," the temple. These are the last of Jesus' healings in

14 [15] The wondrous things: the healings.

15 [16]Out of the mouths . . . praise': cf Psalm 8:3 (LXX).

16 [18-22] In Mark the effect of Jesus' cursing the fig tree is not immediate; see Mark 11:14, 20. By making it so, Matthew has heightened the miracle. Jesus' act seems arbitrary and ill-tempered, but it is a prophetic action similar to those of Old Testament prophets that vividly symbolize some part of their preaching; see, e.g., Ezekiel 12:1-20. It is a sign of the judgment that is to come upon the Israel that with all its apparent piety lacks the fruit of good deeds (Matthew 3:10) and will soon bear the punishment of its fruitlessness (Matthew 21:43). Some scholars propose that this story is the development in tradition of a parable of Jesus about the destiny of a fruitless tree, such as Luke 13:6-9. Jesus' answer to the question of the amazed disciples (Matthew 21:20) makes the miracle an example of the power of prayer made with unwavering faith (Matthew 21:21-22).

17 [21] See Matthew 17:20.

18 [23-27] Cf Mark 11:27-33. This is the first of five controversies between Jesus and the religious authorities of Judaism in Matthew 21:23-22:46 Presented in the form of questions and answers.

19 [23] These things: probably his entry into the city, his cleansing of the temple, and his healings there.

20 [24] To reply by counterquestion was common in rabbinical debate.

21 [26] We fear . . . as a prophet: cf Matthew 14:5.

22 [27] Since through embarrassment on the one hand and fear on the other the religious authorities claim ignorance of the origin of John's baptism, they show themselves incapable of speaking with authority; hence Jesus refuses to discuss with them the grounds of his authority.

23 [28-32] The series of controversies is interrupted by three parables on the judgment of Israel (Matthew 21:28-22:14) of which this, peculiar to Matthew, is the first. The second (Matthew 21:33-46) comes from Mark (12:1-12), and the third (Matthew 22:1-14) from Q; see Luke 14:15-24. This interruption of the controversies is similar to that in Mark, although Mark has only one parable between the first and second controversy. As regards Mattew's first parable, Matthew 21:28-30 if taken by themselves could point simply to the difference between saying and doing, a theme of much importance in this gospel (cf Matthew 7:21; 12:50); that may have been the parable's original reference. However, it is given a more specific application by the addition of Matthew 21:31-32. The two sons represent, respectively, the religious leaders and the religious outcasts who followed John's call to repentance. By the answer they give to Jesus' question (Matthew 21:31) the leaders condemn themselves. There is much confusion in the textual tradition of the parable. Of the three different forms of the text given by important textual witnesses, one has the leaders answer that the son who agreed to go but did not was the one who did the father's will. Although some scholars accept that as the original reading, their arguments in favor of it seem unconvincing. The choice probably lies only between a reading that puts the son who agrees and then disobeys before the son who at first refuses and then obeys, and the reading followed in the present translation. The witnesses to the latter reading are slightly better than those that support the other.

24 [31] Entering . . . before you: this probably meansthey enter; you do not."

25 [32] Cf Luke 7:29-30. Although the thought is similar to that of the Lucan text, the formulation is so different that it is improbable that the saying comes from Q. Came to you . . . way of righteousness: several meanings are possible: that John himself was righteous, that he taught righteousness to others, or that he had an important place in God's plan of salvation. For the last, see the note on Matthew 3:14-15.

26 [33-46] Cf Mark 12:1-12. In this parable there is a close correspondence between most of the details of the story and the situation that it illustrates, the dealings of God with his people. Because of that heavy allegorizing, some scholars think that it does not in any way go back to Jesus, but represents the theology of the later church. That judgment applies to the Marcan parallel as well, although the allegorizing has gone farther in Matthew. There are others who believe that while many of the allegorical elements are due to church sources, they have been added to a basic parable spoken by Jesus. This view is now supported by the Gospel of Thomas, #65, where a less allegorized and probably more primitive form of the parable is found.

27 [33] Planted a vineyard . . . a tower: cf Isaiah 5:1-2. The vineyard is defined in Isaiah 5:7 asthe house of Israel."

28 [34-35] His servants: Matthew has two sendings of servants as against Mark's three sendings of a single servant (Mark 11:2-5a) followed by a statement about the sending ofmany others" (Mark 11:2, 5b). That these servants stand for the prophets sent by God to Israel is clearly implied but not made explicit here, but see Matthew 23:37. His produce: cf Mark 12:2some of the produce." The produce is the good works demanded by God, and his claim to them is total.

29 [38] Acquire his inheritance: if a Jewish proselyte died without heir, the tenants of his land would have final claim on it.

30 [39] Threw him out . . . and killed him: the change in the Marcan order where the son is killed and his corpse then thrown out (Matthew 12:8) was probably made because of the tradition that Jesus died outside the city of Jerusalem; see John 19:17; Hebrews 13:12.

31 [41] They answered: in Mark 12:9 the question is answered by Jesus himself; here the leaders answer and so condemn themselves; cf Matthew 21:31. Matthew adds that the new tenants to whom the vineyard will be transferred will give the owner the produce at the proper times.

32 [42] Cf Psalm 118:22-23. The psalm was used in the early church as a prophecy of Jesus' resurrection; see Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 2:7. If, as some think, the original parable ended at Matthew 21:39 it was thought necessary to complete it by a reference to Jesus' vindication by God.

33 [43] Peculiar to Matthew. Kingdom of God: see the note on Matthew 19:23-24. Its presence here instead of Matthew's usualkingdom of heaven" may indicate that the saying came from Matthew's own traditional material. A people that will produce its fruit: believing Israelites and Gentiles, the church of Jesus.

34 [44] The majority of textual witnesses omit this verse. It is probably an early addition to Matthew from Luke 20:18 with which it is practically identical.

35 [45] The Pharisees: Matthew inserts into the group of Jewish leaders (Matthew 21:23) those who represented the Judaism of his own time.

 

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