小德兰爱心书屋  
 
小德兰爱心书屋
 
天主教中英对照(新约)列表
·Matthew Chapter 1(玛窦福音)
·Matthew Chapter 2
·Matthew Chapter 3
·Matthew Chapter 4
·Matthew Chapter 5
·Matthew Chapter 6
·Matthew Chapter 7
·Matthew Chapter 8
·Matthew Chapter 9
·Matthew Chapter 10
·Matthew Chapter 11
·Matthew Chapter 12
·Matthew Chapter 13
·Matthew Chapter 14
·Matthew Chapter 15
·Matthew Chapter 16
·Matthew Chapter 17
·Matthew Chapter 18
·Matthew Chapter 19
·Matthew Chapter 20
·Matthew Chapter 21
·Matthew Chapter 22
·Matthew Chapter 23
·Matthew Chapter 24
·Matthew Chapter 25
·Matthew Chapter 26
·Matthew Chapter 27
·Mark Chapter 1(玛尔谷福音)
·Mark Chapter 2
·Mark Chapter 3
·Mark Chapter 4
·Mark Chapter 5
·Mark Chapter 6
·Mark Chapter 7
·Mark Chapter 8
·Mark Chapter 9
·Mark Chapter 10
·Mark Chapter 11
·Mark Chapter 12
·Mark Chapter 13
·Mark Chapter 14
·Mark Chapter 15
·Mark Chapter 16
·Luke Chapter 1(路加福音)
·Luke Chapter 2
·Luke Chapter 3
·Luke Chapter 4
·Luke Chapter 5
·Luke Chapter 6
·Luke Chapter 7
·Luke Chapter 8
·Luke Chapter 9
·Luke Chapter 10
·Luke Chapter 11
·Luke Chapter 12
·Luke Chapter 13
·Luke Chapter 14
·Luke Chapter 15
·Luke Chapter 16
·Luke Chapter 17
·Luke Chapter 18
·Luke Chapter 19
·Luke Chapter 20
·Luke Chapter 21
·Luke Chapter 22
·Luke Chapter 23
·Luke Chapter 24
·John Chapter 1(若望福音)
·John Chapter 2
·John Chapter 3
·John Chapter 4
·John Chapter 5
·John Chapter 6
·John Chapter 7
·John Chapter 8
·John Chapter 9
·John Chapter 10
·John Chapter 11
·John Chapter 12
·John Chapter 13
·John Chapter 14
·John Chapter 15
·John Chapter 16
·John Chapter 17
·John Chapter 18
·John Chapter 19
·John Chapter 20
·John Chapter 21
·Acts Chapter 1(宗徒大事录)
·Acts Chapter 2
·Acts Chapter 3
·Acts Chapter 4
·Acts Chapter 5
·Acts Chapter 6
·Acts Chapter 7
·Acts Chapter 8
·Acts Chapter 9
·Acts Chapter 10
·Acts Chapter 11
·Acts Chapter 12
·Acts Chapter 13
·Acts Chapter 14
·Acts Chapter 15
·Acts Chapter 16
·Acts Chapter 17
·Acts Chapter 18
·Acts Chapter 19
·Acts Chapter 20
·Acts Chapter 21
·Acts Chapter 22
·Acts Chapter 23
·Acts Chapter 24
·Acts Chapter 25
·Acts Chapter 26
·Acts Chapter 27
·Acts Chapter 28
·Romans Chapter 1(罗马人书)
·Romans Chapter 2
·Romans Chapter 3
·Romans Chapter 4
·Romans Chapter 5
·Romans Chapter 6
·Romans Chapter 7
·Romans Chapter 8
·Romans Chapter 9
·Romans Chapter 10
·Romans Chapter 11
·Romans Chapter 12
·Romans Chapter 13
·Romans Chapter 14
·Romans Chapter 15
·Romans Chapter 16
·1 Corinthians Chapter 1[格前]
·1 Corinthians Chapter 2
·1 Corinthians Chapter 3
·1 Corinthians Chapter 4
·1 Corinthians Chapter 5
·1 Corinthians Chapter 6
·1 Corinthians Chapter 7
·1 Corinthians Chapter 8
·1 Corinthians Chapter 9
·1 Corinthians Chapter 10
·1 Corinthians Chapter 11
·1 Corinthians Chapter 12
·1 Corinthians Chapter 13
·1 Corinthians Chapter 14
·1 Corinthians Chapter 15
·1 Corinthians Chapter 16
·2 Corinthians Chapter 1[格后]
·2 Corinthians Chapter 2
·2 Corinthians Chapter 3
·2 Corinthians Chapter 4
·2 Corinthians Chapter 5
·2 Corinthians Chapter 6
·2 Corinthians Chapter 7
·2 Corinthians Chapter 8
·2 Corinthians Chapter 9
·2 Corinthians Chapter 10
·2 Corinthians Chapter 11
·2 Corinthians Chapter 12
·2 Corinthians Chapter 13
·Galatians Chapter 1迦拉达书
·Galatians Chapter 2
·Galatians Chapter 3
·Galatians Chapter 4
·Galatians Chapter 5
·Galatians Chapter 6
·Ephesians Chapter 1厄弗所书
·Ephesians Chapter 2
·Ephesians Chapter 3
·Ephesians Chapter 4
·Ephesians Chapter 5
·Ephesians Chapter 6
·Philippians Chapter 1斐理伯书
·Philippians Chapter 2
·Philippians Chapter 3
·Philippians Chapter 4
·Colossians Chapter 1哥罗森书
·Colossians Chapter 2
·Colossians Chapter 3
·Colossians Chapter 4
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 1[得前
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 2
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 3
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 4
·1 Thessalonians Chapter 5
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 1[得后
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 2
·2 Thessalonians Chapter 3
·1 Timothy Chapter 1弟茂德前书
·1 Timothy Chapter 2
·1 Timothy Chapter 3
·1 Timothy Chapter 4
·1 Timothy Chapter 5
·1 Timothy Chapter 6
·2 Timothy Chapter 1弟茂德后书
·2 Timothy Chapter 2
·2 Timothy Chapter 3
·2 Timothy Chapter 4
·Titus Chapter 1弟铎书
·Titus Chapter 2
·Titus Chapter 3
·Philemon 费肋孟书
·Hebrews Chapter 1希伯来书
·Hebrews Chapter 2
·Hebrews Chapter 3
·Hebrews Chapter 4
·Hebrews Chapter 5
·Hebrews Chapter 6
·Hebrews Chapter 7
·Hebrews Chapter 8
·Hebrews Chapter 9
·Hebrews Chapter 10
·Hebrews Chapter 11
·Hebrews Chapter 12
·Hebrews Chapter 13
·James Chapter 1雅各伯书
·James Chapter 2
·James Chapter 3
·James Chapter 4
·James Chapter 5
·Matthew Chapter 28
·1 Peter Chapter 1伯多禄前书
·1 Peter Chapter 2
·1 Peter Chapter 3
·1 Peter Chapter 4
·1 Peter Chapter 5
·2 Peter Chapter 1伯多禄后书
·2 Peter Chapter 2
·2 Peter Chapter 3
·1 John Chapter 1若望一书
·1 John Chapter 2
·1 John Chapter 3
·1 John Chapter 4
·1 John Chapter 5
·2 John 若望二书
·3 John 若望三书
·Jude 犹达书
·Revelation Chapter 1若望默示录
·Revelation Chapter 2
·Revelation Chapter 3
·Revelation Chapter 4
·Revelation Chapter 5
·Revelation Chapter 6
·Revelation Chapter 7
·Revelation Chapter 8
·Revelation Chapter 9
·Revelation Chapter 10
·Revelation Chapter 11
·Revelation Chapter 12
·Revelation Chapter 13
·Revelation Chapter 14
·Revelation Chapter 15
·Revelation Chapter 16
·Revelation Chapter 17
·Revelation Chapter 18
·Revelation Chapter 19
·Revelation Chapter 20
·Revelation Chapter 21
·Revelation Chapter 22
「我的民因无知识而灭亡。你弃掉知识,我也必弃掉你,使你不再给我作祭司。」
Matthew Chapter 27
Matthew Chapter 27
浏览次数:2441 更新时间:2009-6-20
 
 
 

Matthew
Chapter 27

1 1 2 When it was morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death.

到了早晨,众司祭长和民间的长老就决议陷害耶稣,要把他处死,

2 They bound him, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate, the governor.

遂把他捆绑了,解送给总督比拉多。

3 Then Judas, his betrayer, seeing that Jesus had been condemned, deeply regretted what he had done. He returned the thirty pieces of silver 3 to the chief priests and elders,

这时,那出卖耶稣的犹达斯见他已被判决,就后悔了,把那三十块银钱,退还给司祭长和长老

4 saying, "I have sinned in betraying innocent blood." They said, "What is that to us? Look to it yourself."

说:我出卖了无辜的血,犯了罪了!他们却说:这与我们何干?是你自己的事!

5 4 Flinging the money into the temple, he departed and went off and hanged himself.

于是他把那些银钱扔在圣所里,就退出来,上吊死了。

6 The chief priests gathered up the money, but said, "It is not lawful to deposit this in the temple treasury, for it is the price of blood."

司祭长拿了那些银钱说:这是血价,不可放入献仪箱内。

7 After consultation, they used it to buy the potter's field as a burial place for foreigners.

他们商议后,就用那银钱买了陶工的田地,作为埋葬外乡人用。

8 That is why that field even today is called the Field of Blood.

为此,直到今日称那块田地为血田

9 Then was fulfilled what had been said through Jeremiah the prophet, 5 "And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the value of a man with a price on his head, a price set by some of the Israelites,

这就应验了耶肋米亚先知所说的话:他们拿了三十块银钱,即以色列子民为被卖的人所估定的价钱,

10 and they paid it out for the potter's field just as the Lord had commanded me."

用这钱买了陶工的那块田,如上主所吩咐我的。

11 Now Jesus stood before the governor, and he questioned him, "Are you the king of the Jews?" 6 Jesus said, "You say so."

耶稣站在总督面前,总督便审问他说:你是犹太人的君王吗?”耶稣回答说:你说的是。

12 And when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, 7 he made no answer.

当司祭长和长老控告他时,他什么也不回答。

13 Then Pilate said to him, "Do you not hear how many things they are testifying against you?"

于是比拉多对他说:你没有听见,他们提出多少证据告你吗?”

14 But he did not answer him one word, so that the governor was greatly amazed.

耶稣连一句话也没有回答他,以至总督大为惊异。

15 8 Now on the occasion of the feast the governor was accustomed to release to the crowd one prisoner whom they wished.

每逢节日,总督惯常给民众释放一个他们愿意释放的囚犯。

16 9 And at that time they had a notorious prisoner called (Jesus) Barabbas.

那时,正有一个出名的囚犯,名叫巴辣巴。

17 So when they had assembled, Pilate said to them, "Which one do you want me to release to you, (Jesus) Barabbas, or Jesus called Messiah?"

当他们聚集在一起时,比拉多对他们说:你们愿意我给你们释放那一个?巴辣巴,或是那称为默西亚的耶稣?”

18 10 For he knew that it was out of envy that they had handed him over.

原来他知道,他们是由于嫉妒才把他解送来的。

19 11 While he was still seated on the bench, his wife sent him a message, "Have nothing to do with that righteous man. I suffered much in a dream today because of him."

比拉多正坐堂时,他的妻子差人到他跟前说:你千万不要干涉那义人的事,因为我为他,今天在梦中受了许多苦。

20 The chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas but to destroy Jesus.

司祭长和长老却说服了民众,叫他们要求巴辣巴,而除掉耶稣。

21 The governor said to them in reply, "Which of the two do you want me to release to you?" They answered, "Barabbas!"

总督又向他们发言说:这两个人中,你们愿意我给你们释放那一个?”他们说:巴辣巴。

22 12 Pilate said to them, "Then what shall I do with Jesus called Messiah?" They all said, "Let him be crucified!"

比拉多对他们说:那么,对于那称为默西亚的耶稣我该怎么办?”众人答说:该钉他在十字架上。

23 But he said, "Why? What evil has he done?" They only shouted the louder, "Let him be crucified!"

总督问说:他究竟做了什么恶事?”他们越发喊说:该钉他在十字架上。

24 13 When Pilate saw that he was not succeeding at all, but that a riot was breaking out instead, he took water and washed his hands in the sight of the crowd, saying, "I am innocent of this man's blood. Look to it yourselves."

比拉多见事毫无进展,反到更为混乱,就拿水,当着民众洗手说:对这义人的血,我是无罪的,你们自己负责吧!

25 And the whole people said in reply, "His blood be upon us and upon our children."

全体百姓回答说:他的血归在我们和我们的子孙身上!

26 Then he released Barabbas to them, but after he had Jesus scourged, 14 he handed him over to be crucified.

于是比拉多给他们释放了巴辣巴;至于耶稣,把他鞭打了以后,交给人钉在十字架上。

27 Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus inside the praetorium 15 and gathered the whole cohort around him.

那时,总督的兵士把耶稣带到总督府内,召集了全队围着他,

28 They stripped off his clothes and threw a scarlet military cloak 16 about him.

脱去了他的衣服,给他披上一件紫红色的外氅;

29 Weaving a crown out of thorns, 17 they placed it on his head, and a reed in his right hand. And kneeling before him, they mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!"

又用荆棘编了一个茨冠,戴在他头上,拿一根芦苇放在他右手里;然后跪在他前,戏弄他说:犹太人的君王,万岁!

30 They spat upon him 18 and took the reed and kept striking him on the head.

随后向他吐唾沬,拿起芦苇来敲他的头。

31 And when they had mocked him, they stripped him of the cloak, dressed him in his own clothes, and led him off to crucify him.

戏弄完了,就给他脱去外氅,又给他穿上他自己的衣服,带他去钉在十字架上。

32 19 As they were going out, they met a Cyrenian named Simon; this man they pressed into service to carry his cross.

他们出来时,遇见一个基勒乃人,名叫西满,就强迫他背耶稣的十字架。

33 And when they came to a place called Golgotha (which means Place of the Skull),

到了一个名叫哥耳哥达的地方,即称为髑髅的地方,

34 they gave Jesus wine to drink mixed with gall. 20 But when he had tasted it, he refused to drink.

他们就拿苦艾调和的酒给他喝;他只尝了尝,却不愿意喝。

35 After they had crucified him, they divided his garments 21 by casting lots;

他们把他钉在十字架上以后,就拈阄分了他的衣服;

36 then they sat down and kept watch over him there.

然后坐在那里看守他。

37 And they placed over his head the written charge 22 against him: This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.

在他的头上安放了他的罪状牌,写着说:这是耶稣,犹太人的君王。

38 Two revolutionaries 23 were crucified with him, one on his right and the other on his left.

当时与他一起被钉在十字架上的,还有两个强盗:一个在右边,一个在左边。

39 24 Those passing by reviled him, shaking their heads

路过的人都摇头辱骂他说:

40 and saying, "You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself, if you are the Son of God, (and) come down from the cross!"

 你这拆毁圣殿而三日内重建起来的,救你自己吧!如果你是天主子,从十字架上下来吧!

41 Likewise the chief priests with the scribes and elders mocked him and said,

司祭长和经师与长老们也同样戏弄说:

42 "He saved others; he cannot save himself. So he is the king of Israel! 25 Let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him.

 他救了别人,却救不了自己;他既是以色列君王:如今从十架上下来吧!我们就信他。

43 26 He trusted in God; let him deliver him now if he wants him. For he said, 'I am the Son of God.'"

他信赖天主,天主如喜欢他,如今就该救他,因为他说过:我是天主子。

44 The revolutionaries who were crucified with him also kept abusing him in the same way.

同他一起被钉在十字架上的强盗,也这样讥诮他。

45 27 From noon onward, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon.

从第六时辰起,直到第九时辰,遍地都黑暗了。

46 And about three o'clock Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?" 28 which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"

约莫第九时辰,耶稣大声喊说:厄里!厄里,肋玛撒巴黑塔尼!就是说:我的天主,我的天主!你为什么舍弃了我?”

47 29 Some of the bystanders who heard it said, "This one is calling for Elijah."

站在那里的人中,有几个听见了就说:这人呼唤厄里亚呢!

48 Immediately one of them ran to get a sponge; he soaked it in wine, and putting it on a reed, gave it to him to drink.

他们中遂有一个立刻跑去,拿了海绵,浸满醋,绑在芦苇上,递给他喝。

49 But the rest said, "Wait, let us see if Elijah comes to save him."

其余的却说:等一等,我们看,是否厄里亚来救他!

50 30 But Jesus cried out again in a loud voice, and gave up his spirit.

耶稣又大喊一声,遂交付了灵魂。

51 And behold, the veil of the sanctuary was torn in two from top to bottom. 31 The earth quaked, rocks were split,

看,圣所的帐幔,从上到下分裂为二,大地震动,岩石崩裂,

52 tombs were opened, and the bodies of many saints who had fallen asleep were raised.

坟墓自开,许多长眠的圣者的身体复活了。

53 And coming forth from their tombs after his resurrection, they entered the holy city and appeared to many.

在耶稣复活后,他们由坟墓出来,进入圣城,发显给许多人。

54 32 The centurion and the men with him who were keeping watch over Jesus feared greatly when they saw the earthquake and all that was happening, and they said, "Truly, this was the Son of God!"

百夫长和同他一起看守耶稣的人,一见地动和所发生的事,就非常害怕说:这人真是天主子!

55 There were many women there, looking on from a distance, 33 who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him.

有许多妇女在那里从远处观望,她们从加里肋亚就跟随了耶稣为服事他。

56 Among them were Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

其中有玛利亚玛达肋纳,雅各伯和若瑟的母亲玛利亚与载伯德儿子的母亲。

57 34 When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea named Joseph, who was himself a disciple of Jesus.

到了傍晚,来了一个阿黎玛特雅的富人,名叫若瑟,他也是耶稣的门徒。

58 He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus; then Pilate ordered it to be handed over.

这人去见比拉多,请求耶稣的遗体;比拉多就下令交给他。

59 Taking the body, Joseph wrapped it (in) clean linen

若瑟领了耶稣的遗体,就用洁白的殓布将他包好,

60 and laid it in his new tomb that he had hewn in the rock. Then he rolled a huge stone across the entrance to the tomb and departed.

安, 放在为自己于岩石间所凿的新墓穴内;并把一块大石头滚到墓口,就走了。

61 But Mary Magdalene and the other Mary remained sitting there, facing the tomb.

在那里还有玛利亚玛达肋纳和另外一个玛利亚,对着坟墓坐着。

62 35 The next day, the one following the day of preparation, 36 the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered before Pilate

第二天,即预备日以后的那天,司祭长和法利塞人同来见比拉多说:

63 and said, "Sir, we remember that this impostor while still alive said, 'After three days I will be raised up.'

 大人,我们记得那个骗子活着的时候曾说过:三天以后我要复活。

64 Give orders, then, that the grave be secured until the third day, lest his disciples come and steal him and say to the people, 'He has been raised from the dead.' This last imposture would be worse than the first." 37

为此,请你下令,把守坟墓直到第三天;怕他的门徒来了,把他偷去,而对百姓说:他从死人中复活了。那最后的骗局就比先前的更坏了!

65 Pilate said to them, "The guard is yours; 38 go secure it as best you can."

比拉多对他们说:你们可得一队卫兵;你们去,照你们所知道的,好好看守。

66 So they went and secured the tomb by fixing a seal to the stone and setting the guard.

他们就去,在石上加了封条,派驻卫兵把守坟墓。

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Footnotes(注解)

1 [1-31] Cf Mark 15:1-20. Matthew's account of the Roman trial before Pilate is introduced by a consultation of the Sanhedrin after which Jesus is handed over to . . . the governor (Matthew 27:1-2). Matthew follows his Marcan source closely but adds some material that is peculiar to him, the death of Judas (Matthew 27:3-10), possibly the name Jesus as the name of Barabbas also (Matthew 27:16-17), the intervention of Pilate's wife (Matthew 27:19), Pilate's washing his hands in token of his disclaiming responsibility for Jesus' death (Matthew 27:24), and the assuming of that responsibility by the whole people (Matthew 27:25).

2 [1] There is scholarly disagreement about the meaning of the Sanhedrin's taking counsel (symboulion elabon; cf Matthew 12:14; 22:15; 27:7; 28:12); see the note on Mark 15:1. Some understand it as a discussion about the strategy for putting their death sentence against Jesus into effect since they lacked the right to do so themselves. Others see it as the occasion for their passing that sentence, holding that Matthew, unlike Mark (Mark 14:64), does not consider that it had been passed in the night session (Matthew 26:66). Even in the latter interpretation, their handing him over to Pilate is best explained on the hypothesis that they did not have competence to put their sentence into effect, as is stated in John 18:31.

3 [3] The thirty pieces of silver: see Matthew 26:15.

4 [5-8] For another tradition about the death of Judas, cf Acts 1:18-19. The two traditions agree only in the purchase of a field with the money paid to Judas for his betrayal of Jesus and the name given to the field, the Field of Blood. In Acts Judas himself buys the field and its name comes from his own blood shed in his fatal accident on it. The potter's field: this designation of the field is based on the fulfillment citation in Matthew 27:10.

5 [9-10] Cf Matthew 26:15. Matthew's attributing this text to Jeremiah is puzzling, for there is no such text in that book, and the thirty pieces of silver thrown by Judas "into the temple" (Matthew 27:5) recall rather Zechariah 11:12-13. It is usually said that the attribution of the text to Jeremiah is due to Matthew's combining the Zechariah text with texts from Jeremiah that speak of a potter (Jeremiah 18:2-3), the buying of a field (Jeremiah 32:6-9), or the breaking of a potter's flask at Topheth in the valley of Ben-Hinnom with the prediction that it will become a burial place (Jeremiah 19:1-13).

6 [11] King of the Jews: this title is used of Jesus only by pagans. The Matthean instances are, besides this verse, Matthew 2:2; 27:29, 37. Matthew equates it with "Messiah"; cf Matthew 2:2, 4 and Matthew 27:17, 22 where he has changed "the king of the Jews" of his Marcan source (Mark 15:9, 12) to "(Jesus) called Messiah." The normal political connotation of both titles would be of concern to the Roman governor. You say so: see the note on Matthew 26:25. An unqualified affirmative response is not made because Jesus' kingship is not what Pilate would understand it to be.

7 [12-14] Cf Matthew 26:62-63. As in the trial before the Sanhedrin, Jesus' silence may be meant to recall Isaiah 53:7. Greatly amazed: possibly an allusion to Isaiah 52:14-15.

8 [15-26] The choice that Pilate offers the crowd between Barabbas and Jesus is said to be in accordance with a custom of releasing at the Passover feast one prisoner chosen by the crowd (Matthew 27:15). This custom is mentioned also in Mark 15:6 and John 18:39 but not in Luke; see the note on Luke 23:17. Outside of the gospels there is no direct attestation of it, and scholars are divided in their judgment of the historical reliability of the claim that there was such a practice.

9 [16-17] [Jesus] Barabbas: it is possible that the double name is the original reading; Jesus was a common Jewish name; see the note on Matthew 1:21. This reading is found in only a few textual witnesses, although its absence in the majority can be explained as an omission of Jesus made for reverential reasons. That name is bracketed because of its uncertain textual attestation. The Aramaic name Barabbas means "son of the father"; the irony of the choice offered between him and Jesus, the true son of the Father, would be evident to those addressees of Matthew who knew that.

10 [18] Cf Mark 14:10. This is an example of the tendency, found in varying degree in all the gospels, to present Pilate in a relatively favorable light and emphasize the hostility of the Jewish authorities and eventually of the people.

11 [19] Jesus' innocence is declared by a Gentile woman. In a dream: in Matthew's infancy narrative, dreams are the means of divine communication; cf Matthew 1:20; 2:12, 13, 19, 22.

12 [22] Let him be crucified: incited by the chief priests and elders (Matthew 27:20), the crowds demand that Jesus be executed by crucifixion, a peculiarly horrible form of Roman capital punishment. The Marcan parallel, "Crucify him" (Mark 15:3), addressed to Pilate, is changed by Matthew to the passive, probably to emphasize the responsibility of the crowds.

13 [24-25] Peculiar to Matthew. Took water . . . blood: cf Deut 21:1-8, the handwashing prescribed in the case of a murder when the killer is unknown. The elders of the city nearest to where the corpse is found must wash their hands, declaring, "Our hands did not shed this blood." Look to it yourselves: cf Matthew 27:4. The whole people: Matthew sees in those who speak these words the entire people (Greek laos) of Israel. His blood . . . and upon our children: cf Jeremiah 26:15. The responsibility for Jesus' death is accepted by the nation that was God's special possession (Exodus 19:5), his own people (Hosea 2:23), and they thereby lose that high privilege; see Matthew 21:43 and the note on that verse. The controversy between Matthew's church and Pharisaic Judaism about which was the true people of God is reflected here. As the Second Vatican Council has pointed out, guilt for Jesus' death is not attributable to all the Jews of his time or to any Jews of later times.

14 [26] He had Jesus scourged: the usual preliminary to crucifixion.

15 [27] The praetorium: the residence of the Roman governor. His usual place of residence was at Caesarea Maritima on the Mediterranean coast, but he went to Jerusalem during the great feasts, when the influx of pilgrims posed the danger of a nationalistic riot. It is disputed whether the praetorium in Jerusalem was the old palace of Herod in the west of the city or the fortress of Antonia northwest of the temple area. The whole cohort: normally six hundred soldiers.

16 [28] Scarlet military cloak: so Matthew as against the royal purple of Mark 15:17 and John 19:2.

17 [29] Crown out of thorns: probably of long thorns that stood upright so that it resembled the "radiant" crown, a diadem with spikes worn by Hellenistic kings. The soldiers' purpose was mockery, not torture. A reed: peculiar to Matthew; a mock scepter.

18 [30] Spat upon him: cf Matthew 26:67 where there also is a possible allusion to Isaiah 50:6.

19 [32] See the note on Mark 15:21. Cyrenian named Simon: Cyrenaica was a Roman province on the north coast of Africa and Cyrene was its capital city. The city had a large population of Greek-speaking Jews. Simon may have been living in Palestine or have come there for the Passover as a pilgrim. Pressed into service: see the note on Matthew 5:41.

20 [34] Wine . . . mixed with gall: cf Mark 15:23 where the drink is "wine drugged with myrrh," a narcotic. Matthew's text is probably an inexact allusion to Psalm 69:22. That psalm belongs to the class called the individual lament, in which a persecuted just man prays for deliverance in the midst of great suffering and also expresses confidence that his prayer will be heard. That theme of the suffering Just One is frequently applied to the sufferings of Jesus in the passion narratives.

21 [35] The clothing of an executed criminal went to his executioner(s), but the description of that procedure in the case of Jesus, found in all the gospels, is plainly inspired by Psalm 22:18. However, that psalm verse is quoted only in John 19:24.

22 [37] The offense of a person condemned to death by crucifixion was written on a tablet that was displayed on his cross. The charge against Jesus was that he had claimed to be the King of the Jews (cf Matthew 27:11), i.e., the Messiah (cf Matthew 27:17, 22).

23 [38] Revolutionaries: see the note on John 18:40 where the same Greek word as that found here is used for Barabbas.

24 [39-40] Reviled him . . . heads: cf Psalm 22:8. You who would destroy . . . three days; cf Matthew 26:61. If you are the Son of God: the same words as those of the devil in the temptation of Jesus; cf Matthew 4:3, 6.

25 [42] King of Israel: in their mocking of Jesus the members of the Sanhedrin call themselves and their people not "the Jews" but Israel.

26 [43] Peculiar to Matthew. He trusted in God . . . wants him: cf Psalm 22:9. He said . . . of God: probably an allusion to Wisdom 2:12-20 where the theme of the suffering Just One appears.

27 [45] Cf Amos 8:9 where on the day of the Lord "the sun will set at midday."

28 [46] Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?: Jesus cries out in the words of Psalm 22:2, a psalm of lament that is the Old Testament passage most frequently drawn upon in this narrative. In Mark the verse is cited entirely in Aramaic, which Matthew partially retains but changes the invocation of God to the Hebrew Eli, possibly because that is more easily related to the statement of the following verse about Jesus' calling for Elijah.

29 [47] Elijah: see the note on Matthew 3:4. This prophet, taken up into heaven (2 Kings 2:11), was believed to come to the help of those in distress, but the evidences of that belief are all later than the gospels.

30 [50] Gave up his spirit: cf the Marcan parallel (Mark 15:37), "breathed his last." Matthew's alteration expresses both Jesus' control over his destiny and his obedient giving up of his life to God.

31 [51-53] Veil of the sanctuary . . . bottom: cf Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45. Luke puts this event immediately before the death of Jesus. There were two veils in the Mosaic tabernacle on the model of which the temple was constructed, the outer one before the entrance of the Holy Place and the inner one before the Holy of Holies (see Exodus 26:31-36). Only the high priest could pass through the latter and that only on the Day of Atonement (see Lev 16:1-18). Probably the torn veil of the gospels is the inner one. The meaning of the scene may be that now, because of Jesus' death, all people have access to the presence of God, or that the temple, its holiest part standing exposed, is now profaned and will soon be destroyed. The earth quaked . . . appeared to many: peculiar to Matthew. The earthquake, the splitting of the rocks, and especially the resurrection of the dead saints indicate the coming of the final age. In the Old Testament the coming of God is frequently portrayed with the imagery of an earthquake (see Psalm 68:9; 77:19), and Jesus speaks of the earthquakes that will accompany the "labor pains" that signify the beginning of the dissolution of the old world (Matthew 24:7-8). For the expectation of the resurrection of the dead at the coming of the new and final age, see Daniel 12:1-3. Matthew knows that the end of the old age has not yet come (Matthew 28:20), but the new age has broken in with the death (and resurrection; cf the earthquake in Matthew 28:2) of Jesus; see the note on Matthew 16:28. After his resurrection: this qualification seems to be due to Matthew's wish to assert the primacy of Jesus' resurrection even though he has placed the resurrection of the dead saints immediately after Jesus' death.

32 [54] Cf Mark 15:39. The Christian confession of faith is made by Gentiles, not only the centurion, as in Mark, but the other soldiers who were keeping watch over Jesus (cf Matthew 27:36).

33 [55-56] Looking on from a distance: cf Psalm 38:12. Mary Magdalene . . . Joseph: these two women are mentioned again in Matthew 27:61 and Matthew 28:1 and are important as witnesses of the reality of the empty tomb. A James and Joseph are referred to in Matthew 13:55 as brothers of Jesus.

34 [57-61] Cf Mark 15:42-47. Matthew drops Mark's designation of Joseph of Arimathea as "a distinguished member of the council" (the Sanhedrin), and makes him a rich man and a disciple of Jesus. The former may be an allusion to Isaiah 53:9 (the Hebrew reading of that text is disputed and the one followed in the NAB OT has nothing about the rich, but they are mentioned in the LXX version). That the tomb was the new tomb of a rich man and that it was seen by the women are indications of an apologetic intent of Matthew; there could be no question about the identity of Jesus' burial place. The other Mary: the mother of James and Joseph (56).

35 [62-66] Peculiar to Matthew. The story prepares for Matthew 28:11-15 and the Jewish charge that the tomb was empty because the disciples had stolen the body of Jesus (Matthew 28:13, 15).

36 [62] The next day . . . preparation: the sabbath. According to the synoptic chronology, in that year the day of preparation (for the sabbath) was the Passover; cf Mark 15:42. The Pharisees: the principal opponents of Jesus during his ministry and, in Matthew's time, of the Christian church, join with the chief priests to guarantee against a possible attempt of Jesus' disciples to steal his body.

37 [64] This last imposture . . . the first: the claim that Jesus has been raised from the dead is clearly the last imposture; the first may be either his claim that he would be raised up (63) or his claim that he was the one with whose ministry the kingdom of God had come (see Matthew 12:28).

38 [65] The guard is yours: literally, "have a guard" or "you have a guard." Either the imperative or the indicative could mean that Pilate granted the petitioners some Roman soldiers as guards, which is the sense of the present translation. However, if the verb is taken as an indicative it could also mean that Pilate told them to use their own Jewish guards.

 

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